stevioside Naturally occurring glucoside of steviol, a steroid derivative, which is 300 times as sweet as sucrose. Isolated from leaves of the Paraguayan shrub, yerba dulce (Stevia rebaudiana), the same source as rebaudioside.
RA glucoside stevioside is the best part of stevioside, white or little yellow crystal powder or granule with cool and sweet taste. It is sweeter than cane sugar by 300-450 times, but the calorie is 1/300 of cane sugar. It belongs to the substitute of stevioside and keep other merits of original stevioside, Sweet taste is difficult to disappear in the mouth. It can be stable in the acid and alkali solution(ph3-9), so that improve food taste quality and enhance product level.
The plant is native to the area of the Amabai Mountains of the Cordilleras Range along the Brazil-Paraguay border. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni was first botanically described by the Paraguayan botanist M.S. Bertoni. In 1899 he originally classified the plant as of the genus Eupatorium, then in 1904 he reclassified it into the genus Stevia, a perennial herb belonging to the Compositae family.
Stevioside and its aglycone steviol may act in plants as a feeding deterrent, e.g. against the aphid Schizaphis graminum. The EC50 of stevioside was 650 mg/kg; steviol was more active, with an EC50 of 150 mg/kg. Steviol lost its deterrent activity after aetylation or glycosylation of the C-13 tertiary hydroxy group or methylation of the C-19 carboxylic acid substituent, but the activity of steviol was not greatly affected by modification of either the C-16 exomethylene group or its stereochemistry (Nanayakkara et al., 1987).
Stevioside has a sweetening potency 250-300 times that ofsucrose and is stable to heat. In a 62-year-old sample from a herbarium, the intense sweetness of S. rebaudiana was conserved,indicating the stability of stevioside to drying, preservation, and storage (Soejarto et al., 1982; Hanson & De Oliveira, 1993).