What Are the Uses of Strontium?

Strontium is a silvery, metal element, abbreviated Sr, with an atomic number of 38. It is a member of the alkaline metals family of elements, and as such, is chemically similar to calcium and highly reactive. For this reason, it is not found in nature in its pure form, but only as a component of various minerals. Pure strontium reacts violently with water and quickly oxidizes in air, even spontaneously combusting in air when powdered. While used for a number of things, the chief uses of strontium are in fireworks, metal alloys, the field of medicine, and to an increasingly lesser extent, old-fashioned color television picture tubes.http://www.ebiochem.com/

One of the first uses for strontium, and one that it is still used for today, is for the processing of raw sugar. Strontium hydroxide is used to process sugar from sugar beets and is sometimes used for removing of molasses from raw sugar. This strontium compound was historically produced from the strontium minerals strontianite and celestite. http://www.ebiochem.com/

In 2011, one of the main uses of strontium is in pyrotechnics. Its properties make it useful for producing certain vibrant red colors in fireworks, emergency flares, and tracer ammunition. Strontium burns with an extremely bright, red-hued light. Other common uses for strontium include the formulation of several metal alloys, particularly some steels and aluminum. It is sometimes used in the refining of certain metals as well. http://www.ebiochem.com/

One of the primary uses for strontium in the past was in color television cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Although still in production, as of 2011, these are rapidly becoming less and less common. Strontium oxide is mixed with glass and absorbs x-rays generated by the CRT. This glass is primarily used for the display surface of the tube itself, but not the entire tube, as lead glass is used for the rest. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Some important uses of strontium are found in the field of medicine, as well. While research is still being conducted, it is believed that certain strontium compounds can help prevent and treat osteoporosis and even help reverse bone loss. Radioactive isotopes of strontium are used to treat some cancers as well, particularly that of the prostate gland in men and certain highly progressed forms of bone cancer. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Science and industry make many other uses of strontium. Strontium is used in neurological research of the mechanisms by which neurons and chemical receptors work. The element is also found in certain pigments, particularly dyes and paints. Strontium compounds are used in toothpastes, fluorescent lights, and in corrosion resistant coatings for other metals. In the laboratory, strontium and its compounds are frequently employed in the practice of analytic chemistry. http://www.ebiochem.com/

New Developing Direction of Antibiotic drug

Due to germ’s microbial antibiotics drug resistance increased, scientists are looking for new drug development direction. A recently online journal PLoS ONE reports a potential antimicrobial molecular synthesis and test, and that their treatment effect and many current use of antimicrobial agent are similar. http://www.ebiochem.com

Most compounds show a variety of bacteria and fungi to widespread activity, but to mammalian cells without toxicity, which may develop new antimicrobial treatment way.http://www.ebiochem.com

The Rensselaer polytechnic institute professor Mattheos Koffas and professor at the university of Buffalo John Panepinto team focused on flavonoids related compounds. Flavonoids is naturally occurring in many plant that are thought to have a variety of positive health effects.http://www.ebiochem.com
However, the researchers didn’t limit myself in these existing compounds were synthesized, and they synthsized various related molecules to see whether they can produce a higher antimicrobial activity of the product.http://www.ebiochem.com

They found that many of these new molecules can be effective against a variety of bacteria, such as gram-negative escherichia coli and gram positive bacillus subtilis, and smoke aspergillus fungus and cryptococcus, etc. According to the chief scientist Dr Koffas introduces, “plant polyphenols due to its strong antioxidant properties,they have been in-depth studied, but for they may have other health benefits weren’t studied, our work made it clear that it as a valuable antimicrobial agent with a huge untapped potential .
In addition, the researchers are currently synthetize more kinds of compound in order to find out more compound with strong antimicrobial properties. http://www.ebiochem.com


Are generic drugs really the same as branded drugs?

Consumers are told that generics are just like their name-brand counterparts. More medical professionals are starting to say that’s not the case. http://www.ebiochem.com

In October the Food and Drug Administration took a highly unusual step: It declared that a generic drug it had previously approved — a version of the popular antidepressant Wellbutrin — was not in fact “bioequivalent” to the name-brand version. The FDA withdrew its approval. http://www.ebiochem.com

The federal action shook the business. Teva Pharmaceuticals (TEVA), which marketed the generic in question, has stopped selling it, and other companies are now testing their versions of Wellbutrin at the FDA’s request. The episode is bringing momentum to a movement that has been quietly building among many doctors and medical societies that are increasingly willing to ask a question that borders on heresy: Are generics really identical to the branded products they are meant to replicate? To a surprising degree, they say, the answer is no.This FDA action injected new power to develop generics. http://www.ebiochem.com

If you’re a layperson, this is the way you probably think of generics: They’re the exact same products in different packaging; generics companies can sell such medications for a fraction of the cost of the originals because they don’t have to spend huge sums on drug development and marketing. http://www.ebiochem.com

That apparent miracle explains why more than 80% of all U.S. prescriptions dispensed in 2012 were generic. Using nonbranded medications saved Americans $193 billion this past year, according to the Generic Pharmaceutical Association. http://www.ebiochem.com

But generic drugs diverge from the originals far more than most of us believe. For starters, it’s not as if the maker of the original pharmaceutical hands over its manufacturing blueprint when its patent runs out or is challenged. The patent reveals the components, but it doesn’t explain how to make the drug. In reality, manufacturing a generic requires reverse engineering, and the result is an approximation rather than a duplicate of the original. http://www.ebiochem.com

The FDA’s rules effectively acknowledge that. The agency’s definition of bioequivalence is surprisingly broad: A generic’s maximum concentration of active ingredient in the blood must not fall more than 20% below or 25% above that of the brand name. This means a potential range of 45%, by that measure, among generics labeled as being the same. http://www.ebiochem.com

There are other differences. The generic must contain the same active ingredient as the original. But the additional ingredients, known as excipients, can be different and are often of lower quality. Those differences can affect what’s called bioavailability — the amount of drug that could potentially be absorbed into the bloodstream. As the American Heart Association recently noted, “Some additives traditionally thought to be inert, such as alcohol sugars, cyclodextrans, and polysorbate-80, may alter a drug’s dissolution, thereby impacting its bioavailability.” http://www.ebiochem.com


Author:Katherine Eban

What to eat if he has Crohn’s Disease

If they’ve got inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), you need to make calories count.

Certain foods won’t speed gut healing, but there are plenty that can help you stay well-nourished without aggravating symptoms, says Tracie Dalessandro, RD, a nutritionist based in Briarcliff Manor, NY, who also has Crohn’s disease. http://www.ebiochem.com

Here are some foods that should be easy on your digestion. However, the right Crohn’s diet is highly individual—so use trial and error to see what works for you. http://www.ebiochem.com

Many people with Crohn’s are lactose intolerant. Luckily, there’s a great dairy alternative: almond milk, which is made from ground-up almonds and can be fortified to contain as much calcium as regular milk (check the label). Almond milk also has vitamin D and E, but contains no cholesterol or saturated fat, and fewer calories than cow’s milk. Many varieties contain added sweetener; choosing an unsweetened product cuts about 20 calories per serving. http://www.ebiochem.com

Oatmeal is a great choice if you have Crohn’s. “Oatmeal is even OK when I’m flaring, if I’m not flaring too badly,” McDonald says.Insoluble fiber—the kind in raw veggies, fruits, and nuts—draws water into the colon and can worsen diarrhea for those with IBD. But oatmeal has soluble fiber, which absorbs water and passes more slowly through your digestive tract, says Dalessandro, who is also a nutritional advisor to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America.http://www.ebiochem.com

People with Crohn’s may think they should avoid fruit, but even during a flare, tropical fruits are an easy-to-digest, nutritious option. Papaya contains an enzyme, papain, which helps your body digest proteins; this butter-soft fruit is also rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, folate and potassium, and is available year-round. Cantaloupe is a good choice too.http://www.ebiochem.com

Avocado,soft, smooth, and chock-full of good fats, B vitamins, vitamin E, and potassium, avocados should definitely be on the menu if you have Crohn’s disease. http://www.ebiochem.com

Some foods or eating habits can exacerbate symptoms. Each person is different, so you may need to use trial and error to see what helps (or hurts) your symptoms. http://www.ebiochem.com

Shrimp and white fish like tilapia and flounder are also nutritious and easily digestible. Prepare seafood by steaming, broiling or grilling, and skip the deep-fat fryer. http://www.ebiochem.com



What Are the Different Types of Progesterone in Oil Injections?

Progesterone is a female sex hormone. It is produced during pregnancy and also during the menstrual cycle. Progesterone in oil injections are given to women undergoing in-vitro fertilization. It is also helpful for women with absent menstrual periods or abnormal menstrual bleeding. The kinds of oil used are sesame, cottonseed, peanut, olive, and ethyl oleate. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Progesterone in oil is given as an intramuscular injection in the upper buttocks, near the hip. Pain at the injection site is common. The different oils used in the injections differ in amount of pain caused. Allergic reaction is possible to sesame and peanut oil. If this occurs, cottonseed, olive, or ethyl oleate oils are used instead. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Sesame oil is the most common oil used in progesterone injections. It is thinner than peanut oil, and less likely to cause an allergic reaction. Peanut oil is also common, though allergic reactions are more likely and can be severe. Warming the oil before injection will help it flow more smoothly into the muscle and will avoid lump formation at the injection site. Using heat, rather than ice, for pain control will help prevent lumps and allow the drug to properly disperse.http://www.ebiochem.com/

There are three other oil available to use in progesterone injections if the patient is allergic to both sesame and peanut oils. Cottonseed oil is less likely to cause injection site pain. In the rare cases that conttonseed oil causes an allergic reaction, olive oil or ethyl oleate is used. Ethyl oleate is the thinnest oil available. Because of this, a smaller needle can be used, and it does not cause lumps at the injection site. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Progesterone is given to women undergoing IVF because it is thought to help prepare the body for pregnancy. It is continued for the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy to reduce the risk of miscarriage. Progesterone in oil and progesterone suppositories are the most common forms prescribed. Research does not show a clear benefit of one over the other, although doctors usually have a preference. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Women with amenorrhea, or absent periods, are at an increased risk of endometrial cancer. To minimize the risk of endometrial cancer in patients with amenorrhea, medical professionals prefer to induce a menstrual period at least once every three months. Injections of progesterone in oil are most commonly used, although other forms of period inducement are also effective. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Irregular menstrual bleeding is also treated with progesterone. An injection of progesterone in oil is given once a day for six days. Bleeding usually stops by the sixth day.http://www.ebiochem.com/

What Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds within the molecule. They are called essential fatty acids because the human body is unable to manufacture its own. Some forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be obtained from plant-based foods, and other forms can be obtained only from animal sources. Unlike saturated fat, many studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats are good for the body, particularly for the heart and brain.http://www.ebiochem.com/

The difference between polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat is that polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond situated between the carboxylic acid and the methyl group. The first double bond can be located either in the third, sixth or ninth position away from the methyl group, which then determines whether it is omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9. Omega-3 and omega-6 are examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and omega-9 is an example of monounsaturated fatty acids. It is important to consume omega-3 and omega-6 in a healthy ratio of about 1 to 3 in order for the body to be able to absorb them properly. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the two forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids that cannot be manufactured in the body, so they must be obtained from the diet. ALA is a form of omega-3 fatty acid, and it is available from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, soybeans, avocados and leafy greens. After it is in the body, the ALA is manufactured into two other forms of omega-3 known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA also can be obtained from animal sources such as salmon, sardines, mackerel and shrimp. In some cases, the body is unable to use ALA, and thus EPA and DHA from animal sources are essential.http://www.ebiochem.com/

LA is a form of omega-6, which can be obtained from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, avocados and many vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and corn oil. After it is in the body, it is manufactured into two other forms of omega-6 known as arachidonic acid (AA) and gamma linolenic (GLA). AA and GLA also can be obtained from animal sources, such as eggs, poultry, meat and dairy. Again, these forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in cases when the body is unable to use LA to manufacture its own. http://www.ebiochem.com/

The health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids include an improved heart health, improved memory and protection against cancer, arthritis and asthma. Studies show that the healthy oils have the ability to lower high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as to maintain a healthy heart rhythm. Negative side effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids can also occur if the omega-6s are consumed in excess amounts. Some of these side effects include heart disease, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis and depression. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Scientists is exploring potential targets for preventing Parkinson’s disease neuron damage

Jeremy W. Chambers1, Shannon Howard and Philip V. LoGrasso2

Oxidative stress is main cause of cancer, heart failure, alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Now Florida the Scripps research institute (TSRI) scientists have discovered that block the key enzyme interaction may protect the neurons related to the destruction of the neurons, which means  potential new target drugs might be found. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Because oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are well known contributors to Parkinson disease (PD), we set out to investigate the role mitochondrial JNK plays in the etiology of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotoxicity in SHSY5Y cells and neuroprotection and motor behavioral protection in vivo. To do this, we utilized a cell-permeable peptide of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, Sab (SH3BP5), as an inhibitor of JNK mitochondrial translocation.http://www.ebiochem.com/

In vitro studies showed that 6-OHDA induced JNK translocation to the mitochondria and that inhibition of mitochondrial JNK signaling by Tat-SabKIM1 protected against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotoxicity. Administration of Tat-SabKIM1 via an intracerebral injection into the mid-forebrain bundle increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta by 2-fold (p < 0.05) in animals lesioned with 6-OHDA, compared with animals treated only with 6-OHDA into the nigrostriatal pathway. In addition, Tat-SabKIM1 decreased the d-amphetamine-induced unilateral rotations associated with the lesion by 30% (p < 0.05). Steady-state brain levels of Tat-SabKIM1 at day 7 were 750 nm, which was ~3.4-fold higher than the IC50 for this peptide versus Sab protein. Collectively, these data suggest that 6-OHDA induced JNK translocation to the mitochondria and that blocking this translocation reduced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the data suggest that inhibitors that block association of JNKs with the mitochondria may be useful neuroprotective agents for the treatment of Parkinson disease. http://www.ebiochem.com/

What Is the Connection Between Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide?

Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are among the most widely used chemicals, both industrially and in the laboratory. They are connected in several ways. Two methods of manufacture of hydrogen peroxide involve the use of sulfuric acid, although these have been largely superseded. Several well-known laboratory experiments and demonstrations that are part of many school curricula require these two compounds. In addition, mixing sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide produces a highly corrosive solution with a variety of uses in the semiconductor, paper and mining industries. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Hydrogen peroxide was originally produced by acidifying barium peroxide with hydrochloric acid. Barium chloride, which is also formed by this reaction, was removed by adding sulfuric acid; they react to produce an insoluble precipitate of barium sulfate. A subsequent method involved the hydrolysis of peroxydisulfuric acid, produced by the electrolysis of sulfuric acid. Today, however, almost all hydrogen peroxide is made by the anthraquinone process, a more economical procedure that does not involve sulfuric acid.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

The reaction of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide produces an aqueous solution of peroxymonosulfuric acid (H2SO5): H2SO4 + H2O2 → H2SO5 + H2O. This is also known as “piranha solution” due to its corrosiveness: it rapidly destroys most organic materials. Another name for it is Caro’s acid, after the German chemist Heinrich Caro, who first produced the acid. Pure peroxymonosulfuric acid — a crystalline solid at room temperature — is prepared by a different method, but the acid is generally used as an aqueous solution. Piranha solution is usually prepared from concentrated sulfuric acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide; the proportions can vary depending on use, but a 3:1 ratio of sulfuric acid to hydrogen peroxide is a common formulation.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

This acid has a number of uses, but must be prepared and handled very carefully. It is a powerful oxidizing agent and is particularly useful for removing organic residues. For this reason, it is sometimes used for cleaning glassware and other laboratory equipment. Caro’s acid is also widely used in the semiconductor industry as an etchant and for ensuring that silicon wafers and other delicate electronic components are free from organic contaminants. Other uses are in the mining industry — for separating metals and ores and decomposing toxic cyanide compounds from wastewater — and in the paper industry — for the delignification and bleaching of wood pulp.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

Sulfuric acid can be produced by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sulfur dioxide: H2O2 + SO2 → H2SO4. This method is not used commercially; however, the reaction can take place in the atmosphere — where both sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are found in small amounts — contributing to acid rain. Hydrogen peroxide can form naturally through photochemical reactions. Sulfur dioxide is produced by the burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels and naturally by volcanic activity. Although hydrogen peroxide is not required for the formation of acid rain from sulfur dioxide, the peroxide reaction is much faster.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

Some vegetables help relief Chilblains

Many people have suffered from chilblains, some people have chilblains every winter that last for up to several months,which is also referred to as perniosis.Chilblains are uncomfortable but can be prevented. This is often characterized by red bumps or patches on the skin, typically on the fingers, toes, nose or ears: the extremities. This swelling and painful condition is commonly caused by exposure to humid and cold conditions. This occurs by the tiny blood vessels, orcapillaries, narrowing when the skin cools. When the skin warms, it can cause blood to leak out of the capillaries, leading to inflammation. This condition is most common in children and the elderly, and is more common in females than males. Also at high risk are those with diabetes, lupus, and poor circulation. http://www.ebiochem.com

There are many things that people can eat and do in order to help this condition. These can include eating more oily fish, which will reduce the stickiness of the blood helping it flow easier; nuts and seeds, which can increase circulation and widen blood vessels; oranges which help the blood flow by strengthening the walls of the capillaries and lowering cholesterol; and garlic andonions, which also both help prevent blood clots. Some tips that will also help include keeping the toes, fingers, and ears covered and warm in cold weather; exercising regularly to help the blood flow; and brushing the skin which can increase circulation. Chilblains is a condition that can be treated easily, and there are many ways to prevent its effects.  Some old people said soaking your fingers and toes into warm light salt brine every day before winter is very effective to prevent chilblains. http://www.ebiochem.com

Passiflora incarnata and peppermint for calm down?

With a tough economy, school, work, and life in general, many of us get stressed out pretty easily. Luckily,there are many herbal remedies and supplements available for those living with anxiety and calm down. The good news is thatTwo of these methods include using passiflora incarnataand peppermint. Passiflora incarnata is also known as passion flower, and is also an herb that is used worldwide (the stems and leaves are used). This herb can help to lower blood pressure, help with insomnia, reduce anxiety, and may even be a cancer fighter. This herb is also commonly used during drug and alcohol detox and withdrawal symptoms. It can even help with menstrual cramps and sore, tired muscles. Peppermint is another herb that one can use for its calming effect. Peppermint oils contain antispasmodic ingredients, which allows them to help calm and soothe digestive tract muscles. Peppermint can also help you calm your nerves, and stomach, simply by its smell. It is also great for heartburn, eating too much, gas, and indigestion.http://www.ebiochem.com

This is also a great treatment for irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, including bloating, pain, and irregular bowel movements. Peppermint tea is said to help the digestive system overall work more fluidly, and on top of helping with stomach problems, can be a great treatment and give you relief from your issues. So if you find yourself in a stressful situation, or with stomach issues, try one of these remedies and get back to enjoying life. http://www.ebiochem.com