The Most Remarkable Scientific Fields—Predicted by “Science”

In 2012, Science’s editors will be watching single-cell sequencing, the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, the Human Connectome Project, expeditions to study subglacial Antarctic waters, cancer immunotherapy, and basic plant research.


Single-cell DNA sequencing burst onto the scene this year, with advances in microfluidics, the isolation of rare cells, and the ability to decipher these tricky one-shot genomes—milestones that should help break the field wide open in 2013. Even more exciting, some say, are prospects for learning about how cells—particularly brain cells—work by studying the RNA in individual,intact cells. In the coming year, single-cell sequencing promises to reveal a lot about how cancer cells vary within a tumor and how many copies of genes reside in each cell. Expect continued progress in developing this technology for medical diagnostics for cancer and prenatal applications. Meanwhile, several groups are assessing what genes are doing by measuring in individual cells the messenger RNA that carries their instructions to a cell’s protein factories. htttp://


The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite will produce the most precise map yet of the afterglow of the big bang, the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The discovery of the CMB in 1965 bolstered the notion that the universe was born in an explosive big bang. Measurements of tiny variations in its temperature in 1992 supported the idea that the universe expanded at greater than light speed in a brief spurt of “inflation.” And the precise mapping of those variations in 2003 helped nail down the composition of the universe: 5% ordinary visible matter, 22% as-yet invisible dark matter, and 73% space-stretching dark energy. Planck will test the now-standard cosmology in greater detail—and could find evidence that the relatively simple scenario isn’t quite the whole story.htttp://


In 2013, the Human Connectome Project will get into full swing. This $38.5 million effort, funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, aims to scan the brains of 1200 healthy adults, including 300 pairs of twins, to investigate individual variations in the connections between brain regions and how they might account for individual differences in cognition and behavior. Several other projects are zooming in to examine neural connectivity at the cellular level. Advocates and critics have debated how much these maps will advance our understanding of brain function. By this time next year, far more data will help inform the debate.


The depths of Antarctica are about to be brought to light. In February, after 14 years of off-and-on drilling through 4 kilometers of East Antarctic ice, Russian scientists stopped just short of the surface of a mysterious subglacial lake likely cut off from the rest of the planet for millions of years. This month, the team returns to Lake Vostok with plans to bring back samples of ice—and, they hope, to discover signs of long-buried indigenous life. U.S.-led and U.K.-led teams are embarking on their own expeditions to study subglacial Antarctic waters. The U.S. team will head to the Whillans Ice Stream, where Antarctic ice joins the Southern Ocean; the U.K. team, to Lake Ellsworth, also on the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet. htttp://


Recently developed drugs that harness the body’s immune system to fight cancer have beaten back the disease in a small subset of tumor-ridden patients. Researchers predict that combining two such immunotherapies that target different pathways could pack an even more powerful punch. In 2013, look for early results from clinical trials that pair two antibodies that thwart pathways that tumor cells co-opt to hide from the immune system, and for reports on human studies that combine this brake-lifting strategy with treatments that rev up the body’s immune response.


Expect basic plant research to pay off this year, with farmers making use of drought-resistant crops and companies selling the first algae-based diesel fuel. Researchers expect to pin down details of the molecular and genetic components that interact to regulate the growth of plants.

Mechanical forces will prove to play a key role in this regulation. Melding genomic,developmental, and ecological studies should help reveal how natural variation can succeed—or fail—to enable plants to adapt to climate change.

How To detox The Lymphatic System (Tips)

Lymphatic detox is very essential for good health, because the human lymphatic system plays a key role in the wellbeing of the body. It forms a core part of the body’s immune system, and is also responsible for bringing nutrients to as well as wastes away from cells.

Dehydration is bad not only for your skin. If you do not drink the right amount of fluids every day, you are also preventing your body form getting rid of toxins efficiently. In order for your lymphatic system, as well as the colon, to do its job, you need to drink at least eight glasses of water daily. Drinking plenty water has been proven to be good for your general health. http;//

Exercise is the best form of detoxification as far as the lymphatic system is concerned. The lymphatic system is responsible for fighting infections and it is important to keep the lymphatic system healthy at all times. Exercise helps keep the movement of lymphatic fluid at its maximum and ensures a lot of toxins are flushed out by sweating. Exercise also improves blood circulation, strengthens the heart and oxygenates cells. Exercise is indeed the best and most natural form of lymphatic cleansing.http;//

Some herbs can promote detox The Lymphatic System well. Astragalus, echinacea, goldenseal, pokeroot, wild indigo root, burdock are excellent herbs that will help cleanse the lymphatic system and flush out toxins accumulated in the lymph. All herbal products should be taken in conjunction with an organic food diet or food which is free of any and all chemical products and substances. Another important point to note is to continue to exercise while using such lymphatic detox herbs, in order to reap the maximum benefits. http;//

There is also a good method of lymphatic detox which is via lymphatic massages. Massages help stimulate the lymph nodes and lymphatic system by facilitating the lymphatic system to flush out all the waste products accumulated as a result of cell metabolism along with excess fluid and microorganisms. During manual massages, the lymphatic system is stimulated and will help facilitate the free and smooth flow of lymphatic fluid or lymph, thereby contributing to a strong immune system. So regular massages is helpful to you. http;//

Top 10 Scientific Discoveries Coming in 2012

This article is from SCI.

Science has spoiled us. Whether it’s a new planet that seems a lot like Earth, wireless technology innovations or the cloning of extinct creatures, we have become accustomed to brilliant minds bringing us new wonders. It’s hard to understand them, or even keep up. So we have decided to give you a sneak peek at the future. This way, you have time to wrap your head around the next big things, plus be the first to tell your friends.

1. Most animals will speak one day.
(We don’t mean that they will all speak on the same day and never again.) The study will cost several billion dollars, but the findings will be startling. Over the next several hundred years, virtually every creature on Earth will develop language skills. Further study will reveal the following: Squirrels will speak Spanish very rapidly; dogs (and wolves) will speak English with an Irish accent; cats of every size will speak French; fish will speak German. For the full list of animal accents, please wait for the press release sometime in the near future.

2. The coldest place on Earth.
Researchers will find three acres in Antarctica where a year-round temperature of minus 147 degrees Fahrenheit is maintained. They will name it “Bitterbitterbitterburg.” It will be the fervent hope of scientists and genteel people worldwide that this location will one day replace any part of a witch’s body when describing how cold it is outside.

3. The ancient Romans made up the existence of the ancient Greeks.

Scoffers at history as simply “the gossip of dead people” will be vindicated when archaelogists stop studying the sex pictures in the ruins of Pompey and uncover the entire hoax on a tablet hidden behind a depiction of bodily pleasures that Dr. Billy Tom Thomas calls, “disgusting and infinitely intriguing.”

4. Sticks, stones and names all hurt.

Psychologists and psychiatrists will agree with a discovery first uncovered by chiropractors: That some names can cause harm to people. Those names include, but are not limited to: Dummy, Stretch, Big Nose, Myrtle, Four-Eyes, Pinko and Bill.

5. Omegagool.

Science will finally discover the highest number. Long thought to be infinite, numbers apparently do have an end point. Noted algebra teacher Mr. Sigda will comment, “The concept of infinite numbers really was overly optimistic and kind of silly when you sit down and think about it.”

6. The planet made entirely of milk chocolate.
Astronomers will be shocked at first, but soon come to realize that in an almost infinite universe every possibility will eventually be realized. The planet will be so far from Earth that it will be impractical to fill our milk chocolate needs there for at least 500 years. Federal authorities will investigate the possibility that chocolate manufacturers knew of this planet but kept it secret, citing chocolate products with names like “Milky Way” and “Mars.”

7. No one discovered America.
Carbon dating and other very complicated scientific processes will determine that it was always there.

8. Yawning is contagious, and can kill.
Studies at the Van Winkle Institute will prove once and for all that the affliction that teenagers at family gatherings with cousins that are too young or too old for them have long tried to tell the world about … is real: A person can be bored to death.

9. Cell phones do not cause brain cancer.
However, they will be shown to cause brain deterioration over time due to the added usage required for the thinking, speaking and general kvetching they make “necessary.” It seems that ideas that were simply thought and dismissed in years past, are now fully formed into semi-coherent “brain blogs” and distributed via cell phone throughout one’s circle of friends, whose brains are, in turn, further deteriorated by the process.

10. Socialmedium.
Let’s give a big welcome to the newest element on the periodic table. The most unusual aspect of this soon-to-be discovered substance is that the atomic weight tends to fluctuate. Further study will reveal a completely self-absorbed element, with a tendency for electrons to be acquired and then unceremoniously dismissed for no good reason. was established in September 2010,focusing on e-commerce model innovation and business practice of bio- pharmaceutical and chemical industry, determining to build the world’s leading one – stop on line trading platform of biochemical industry.
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What Are the Different Types of Progesterone in Oil Injections?

Progesterone is a female sex hormone. It is produced during pregnancy and also during the menstrual cycle. Progesterone in oil injections are given to women undergoing in-vitro fertilization. It is also helpful for women with absent menstrual periods or abnormal menstrual bleeding. The kinds of oil used are sesame, cottonseed, peanut, olive, and ethyl oleate.

Progesterone in oil is given as an intramuscular injection in the upper buttocks, near the hip. Pain at the injection site is common. The different oils used in the injections differ in amount of pain caused. Allergic reaction is possible to sesame and peanut oil. If this occurs, cottonseed, olive, or ethyl oleate oils are used instead.

Sesame oil is the most common oil used in progesterone injections. It is thinner than peanut oil, and less likely to cause an allergic reaction. Peanut oil is also common, though allergic reactions are more likely and can be severe. Warming the oil before injection will help it flow more smoothly into the muscle and will avoid lump formation at the injection site. Using heat, rather than ice, for pain control will help prevent lumps and allow the drug to properly disperse.

There are three other oil available to use in progesterone injections if the patient is allergic to both sesame and peanut oils. Cottonseed oil is less likely to cause injection site pain. In the rare cases that conttonseed oil causes an allergic reaction, olive oil or ethyl oleate is used. Ethyl oleate is the thinnest oil available. Because of this, a smaller needle can be used, and it does not cause lumps at the injection site.

Progesterone is given to women undergoing IVF because it is thought to help prepare the body for pregnancy. It is continued for the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy to reduce the risk of miscarriage. Progesterone in oil and progesterone suppositories are the most common forms prescribed. Research does not show a clear benefit of one over the other, although doctors usually have a preference.

Women with amenorrhea, or absent periods, are at an increased risk of endometrial cancer. To minimize the risk of endometrial cancer in patients with amenorrhea, medical professionals prefer to induce a menstrual period at least once every three months. Injections of progesterone in oil are most commonly used, although other forms of period inducement are also effective.

Irregular menstrual bleeding is also treated with progesterone. An injection of progesterone in oil is given once a day for six days. Bleeding usually stops by the sixth day.

What Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds within the molecule. They are called essential fatty acids because the human body is unable to manufacture its own. Some forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be obtained from plant-based foods, and other forms can be obtained only from animal sources. Unlike saturated fat, many studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats are good for the body, particularly for the heart and brain.

The difference between polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat is that polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond situated between the carboxylic acid and the methyl group. The first double bond can be located either in the third, sixth or ninth position away from the methyl group, which then determines whether it is omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9. Omega-3 and omega-6 are examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and omega-9 is an example of monounsaturated fatty acids. It is important to consume omega-3 and omega-6 in a healthy ratio of about 1 to 3 in order for the body to be able to absorb them properly.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the two forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids that cannot be manufactured in the body, so they must be obtained from the diet. ALA is a form of omega-3 fatty acid, and it is available from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, soybeans, avocados and leafy greens. After it is in the body, the ALA is manufactured into two other forms of omega-3 known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA also can be obtained from animal sources such as salmon, sardines, mackerel and shrimp. In some cases, the body is unable to use ALA, and thus EPA and DHA from animal sources are essential.

LA is a form of omega-6, which can be obtained from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, avocados and many vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and corn oil. After it is in the body, it is manufactured into two other forms of omega-6 known as arachidonic acid (AA) and gamma linolenic (GLA). AA and GLA also can be obtained from animal sources, such as eggs, poultry, meat and dairy. Again, these forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in cases when the body is unable to use LA to manufacture its own.

The health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids include an improved heart health, improved memory and protection against cancer, arthritis and asthma. Studies show that the healthy oils have the ability to lower high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as to maintain a healthy heart rhythm. Negative side effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids can also occur if the omega-6s are consumed in excess amounts. Some of these side effects include heart disease, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis and depression.

What Is a Cyanohydrin?

A cyanohydrin is a chemical unit known as a functional group. In chemistry, a functional group is a distinct unit of atoms that make up part of the structure of larger molecules, but may also exist as separate compounds as well. Functional groups act as a unit during chemical reactions, and will be affected in similar ways during chemical reactions, regardless of the chemical compound they may be part of. Cyanohydrins, some of which are found in nature, are organic compounds, and are important for many industrial applications such as the production of carboxylic and amino acids.

The term cyanohydrin comes from the units that make up such a molecule. Every cyanohydrin is made up of a cyanide group (CN), a hydroxyl group (OH), a carbon atom (C) and two other sub units, which can be hydrogen atoms (H) or either of two chemical groups (R) called alkyls and aryls. For this reason, the general chemical formula of any cyanohydrin is written as R2H(OH)CN.

Ketones and aldehydes, which are two classes of organic molecules, when combined with a cyanide or nitrile, can result in the formation of cyanohydrins. Cyanides and nitriles are chemicals that have either a cyanide group or a nitrile group as part of their chemical structure, both of which contain a hydrogen and a carbon atom, but bonded in different ways. Hydrogen cyanide, one of the most common cyanides, is an extremely toxic chemical. Many people mistakenly assume that cyanide is only one chemical, but in fact there are several cyanides, including sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide, all of which may be used to produce cyanoydrins. Cyanohydrins may be prepared in a number of ways using cyanide or nitrile compounds, sometimes in combination.

Many of the most common cyanohydrins are themselves toxic or otherwise hazardous. Acetone cyanohydrin, which is used in the production of acrylic and other chemicals, such as pesticides, is very dangerous. It is a skin and eye irritant, can be fatal if its fumes are inhaled, and is an explosion hazard as well. Some naturally occurring cyanohydrins such as mandelonitrile and amygdalin are found in very small amounts in the pits of certain stone fruits, such as some plums and apricots. These compounds are not usually found in large enough amounts to be dangerous, but if ingested in quantity, can be harmful or fatal.

What Are the Clarithromycin Interactions?

Clarithromycin is the generic name for an oral antibacterial medication marketed under the brand name of Biaxin®. Common uses of clarithromycin include treatment for certain ulcers, legionnaires’ disease and infections caused by bacteria. Other drugs, foods and pre-existing conditions can all interact with the medication. Some of these interactions are mild, but others can be life threatening. One of the greatest risks of clarithromycin is an interaction with drugs such as blood thinners, heart medications, statins, pain relievers and sedatives, as well as certain medications for erectile dysfunction or seizures.

Many drugs that are safe at normal dosages can become toxic when combined with clarithromycin. The antibacterial affects how well the liver processes toxins and this reduction in liver function can lead to dangerous build-ups of a drug in the body. Clarithromycin interactions have been reported with carbamazepine, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, colchicine and ergot-based drugs, such as migraine medications.

Clarithromycin interactions are also possible when the antibacterial is taken with drugs used to regulate the heartbeat, such as digoxin. This is due to the fact that clarithromycin can alter the rhythm by itself. When combined with other medications that also alter the heart rate, a potentially serious condition, known as QT prolongation, may result. Patients taking digoxin or similar medications are at greatest risk for clarithromycin interactions that affect the cardiovascular system. As patients with low potassium or magnesium levels have an elevated risk of QT prolongation, patients who have depleted levels or who take diuretics, which can lower these levels, should discuss the use of clarithromycin with their doctors.

One of the potential side effects of blood thinners such as warfarin is an increased risk of bruising and bleeding. Clarithromycin can cause the drug to thin the blood too much. Nosebleeds have been reported, but instances of internal bleeding have also been reported, some of them quite severe.

Potentially serious clarithromycin interactions have also been reported in patients who were taking theophylline, pimozide, ranitidine, terfenadine, vardenafil, nevirapine and atazanavir. Some reports of impaired thinking and sleep disturbances have been attributed to an interaction with triazolam. Other drugs, such as itraconazole and saquinavir, result in two-way clarithromycin interactions in which the effectiveness of both drugs are affected.

Patients with liver or kidney disease should be carefully monitored if their doctors choose to prescribe clarithromycin as the antibacterial can reduce these organs’ ability to remove toxins. Special attention must be given to those with impaired kidney or liver function if they are taking any medications to safeguard against clarithromycin interactions. Typically, doctors are also reluctant to prescribe clarithromycin to patients with myasthenia gravis, a disorder that causes muscle weakness.

What Is Terfenadine?

Terfenadine is an antihistamine used to prevent common symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, and itching, that was withdrawn from the United States pharmaceutical market in 1998. The drug is used to treat these common allergy symptoms as well as hives and any allergic condition that causes inflammation. It was also marketed under the brand name Seldane.

When it was discontinued, terfenadine was replaced by fexofenadine, which is also an antihistamine and decongestant that is prescribed by a doctor, but which has fewer side effects. Allergic reactions such as trouble breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, hives, seizures, and swelling of the throat, tongue, or face have been documented in patients who have taken terfenadine. Drowsiness and dizziness, headaches, nausea, and dry skin have also been noted in many patients. Since the antihistamine has so many side effects, it has been advised that people who take it should be careful when operating machines or driving. Alcohol can increase the sedative side effects of the drug, so it is also advised to be cautious when drinking.

Terfenadine also has adverse reactions with other medications. Irregular heartbeats can result if it is taken with antifungal drugs, various antibiotics, as well as ulcer medications. Adverse reactions can also result if terfenadine is taken with some heart medications, antidepressants, caffeine, or diet pills. The antihistamine should also not be ingested by anyone who has lung, urinary, kidney, or heart problems.

An overdose of terfenadine can be very dangerous. If someone exceeds the recommended dosage, they must seek medical attention immediately, and should go to an emergency room if a primary physician is not available. When a dose is missed, it should be skipped if the time for the next dose is near. A double dose is dangerous. An irregular heartbeat can be a sign of an overdose, as well as headaches, drowsiness, or vomiting.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that physicians should discuss alternative treatments with patients who were taking terfenadine in the 1990s. Its replacement, fexofenandine, was found at that point to be just as effective but did not lead to potentially life-threatening heart problems when taken in conjunction with common medications. This alternative medication is found in Allegra-D® which, like many similar prescription drugs, can also cause serious cardiac or neurological symptoms. Caution is still advised for people who suffer from heart and kidney problems as well as diabetes.

What Are the Effects of Decreased Hematocrit Levels?

When the percentage of red cells in the blood drops below normal levels, a person is considered to have a decreased hematocrit level, also known as anemia. Though some people with the condition do not notice any symptoms, particularly if the case is mild or has onset slowly over a period of time, it can cause a variety of issues. People with anemia are often pale, tired, or weak, and they can get dizzy or have trouble focusing. They may have an increased heart rate, experience palpitations or chest pains, or have shortness of breath. Depending on the underlying cause of the problem, such as iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, or lead poisoning, patients may experience other symptoms such as jaundice, difficulty walking, or abdominal pain as well.

Decreased hematocrit levels often make sufferers feel fatigued and weak. They may tire quickly and lose all of their energy, particularly after physical exertion. These patients also often look pale and sickly.

A person’s mental state is also often affected by having decreased hematocrit levels. Some patients may notice they feel dizzy or lightheaded. Others may feel confused or have difficulty concentrating. In extreme cases, particularly when the issue is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, the person may feel depressed, paranoid, or even have hallucinations.

The heart can also be affected when a person has decreased hematocrit levels. A person may feel his or her heart beating much faster than normal, particularly when engaging in strenuous physical activities. This can also lead to shortness of breath, and the person may find that his or her breathing is rapid and shallow. He or she may also have heart palpitations, where the heart beats irregularly, or experience chest pains, though this usually only occurs in severe cases.

Some symptoms of decreased hematocrit levels are dependent on what caused the condition in the first place. Iron deficiency anemia can cause problems like the eating disorder pica and cracking around the corners of the mouth, while vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency can lead to jaundice, loss of balance, or stiffness, tingling, or a sense of loss of touch in the extremities. Decreased hematocrit levels can also be the result of lead poisoning, which can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, and a blue-black line on the gums. Conditions that cause chronic destruction of the red blood cells often lead to jaundice, dark colored urine, and leg ulcers.

What Is Piroxicam?

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is used to ease the pain and swelling caused by arthritis and other conditions involving inflammation. It works by reducing the amount of prostaglandins in the body, which is the substance that causes some types of painful swelling and fever. While many people experience few or no side effects, there is a potential for minor or serious side effects, and there are some precautions that must be taken while using piroxicam.

The most serious potential side effects of piroxicam are an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, ulcers, and bleeding or tears in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking NSAIDs should seek immediate medical attention if they experience pain in the chest, weakness in one side or area of the body, difficulty breathing, or slurred speech, as these symptoms may indicate a heart attack or stroke. Stomach pain, heartburn, bloody vomit, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, or black or bloody stools may indicate serious gastrointestinal side effects, and medical attention should be sought right away.

Some of the more common and less serious side effects of piroxicam include diarrhea, cramping or gas, headache, or lightheadedness. If any of these symptoms are persistent, severe, or if any other unexplainable symptoms are experienced, medical attention should be sought. Patients taking this medication, particularly in higher doses or for longer periods of time, may need to be medically monitored to ensure that the medication is safe and effective for them.

There are a number of medications that may interact with piroxicam, so it is important that a patient tell the prescribing doctor about all medicine and supplements taken, including over the counter medicines, vitamins, and supplements. Blood thinning medications, such as warfarin, ibuprofen, other NSAIDs, and oral steroids, may increase the risk of adverse side effects. Piroxicam may increase the toxicity of lithium, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and other drugs, so patients taking these drugs will need to be carefully monitored.

Women who are pregnant, particularly in the later stages of pregnancy, or nursing should speak to a doctor about whether this medication is appropriate for them. People with a history of heart disease, stroke, ulcers, bleeding stomach or intestines, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or who smoke should speak to the doctor about their medical history. The risks of taking piroxicam may outweigh the benefits in some circumstances, but the patient may need extra monitoring.