What Is ATP Synthase?

An ATP synthase is any enzyme, or catalytic protein, that is primarily involved in the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), one of the most important units of energy storage in the biological systems. Different varieties of ATP synthase appear in different types of cells and organelles as well as in entirely different organisms. In plants, for example, CF1FO-ATP synthase is present in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, which are primarily responsible for photosynthesis. In animals, on the other hand, F1FO-ATP synthase is present in the mitochondrion, the organelles responsible for energy production. Despite these differences in type and location, the core components of the enzyme tend to be quite similar in all organisms. http://www.ebiochem.com/

As indicated by the names of different types of the protein, there are two primary subunits to ATP-synthesizing enzymes, FO and F1. The FO subunit — “O” not “zero” — is so named because it binds to oligomycin, which is essential for some aspects of ATP synthesis. This part of ATP synthase is embedded in the membranes of mitochondrion, while F1, which simply stands for “Fraction 1,” is inside the mitochondria’s matrix. It is possible that these subunits were, at one time, completely separate proteins that have, over the course of evolutionary history, been integrated into one structure that is highly prevalent in nature. http://www.ebiochem.com/

The process of ATP synthesis requires some energy, and the ATP synthase enzyme is equipped to meet this need. The FO subunit uses a proton gradient to produce the energy necessary for the actual synthesis of ATP, which occurs in the F1 subunit. A proton gradient is a type of electrochemical gradient in which potential energy caused by charge differences across a membrane is used to fuel various biochemical processes. Sometimes, the proton gradient is actually the end goal; in these cases, ATP may actually be consumed to provide the necessary energy. http://www.ebiochem.com/

The structure and function of ATP synthase is nearly the same in all organisms. Different subunits are sometimes involved, and different numbers and arrangements of the subunits are sometimes used, but at its core, the protein domains and biochemical processes involved are very similar. This similarity makes ATP synthase interesting from an evolutionary perspective. The fact that the enzyme has been so well preserved in most organisms throughout history implies that the structures were developed very early on in evolutionary history. Biologists believe that the two F subunits that compose the core of the enzyme actually served largely unrelated functions initially, but were eventually able to bind together to form the highly-useful synthase. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Revitalize The Joint Health

In the beginning, the professionals examined the marketplace and found a need for quality nutrients that would actually help the body repair and maintain joints, helping the body heal damage caused by disease, injuries, and normal wear and tear. The products MD’s Choice developed provide the basic building blocks, in the most bioavailable forms, so that the body can improve the synovial fluids, make ligaments and tendons stronger and more flexible, as well as supply what the body needs to build new healthy cartilage. MD’s Choice understands that achieving “Total Joint Health” takes time, usually a few weeks, sometimes months. But, while a joint is repairing, pain and decreased motion will be helped as well.http://www.ebiochem.com

Joint Health is essential for a good life. Thats why we developed Joint Advance. Joint Advance is based on a unique advanced formula that is created and driven by the most effective joint pain relief and getting back old mobility. Joint Advance is ahead of all of the many products on the market because it has its very special composition and many all-natural herbal ingredients. Because the body recognize the natural ingredients JointAdvance is easily metabolized into the complicated balance of your body system.http://www.ebiochem.com

The most popular form of glucosamine found in most joint supplements is Glucosamine HCL (GHCL), but studies have proven that GHCL is unstable in heat or liquid and that only 12% of Glucosamine HCL is found in the blood even when given in extremely high levels to dogs. Contained in those same supplements is the low molecular weight Chondroitin Sulfate. The same study showed a maximum of 5% absorption of Chondroitin Sulfate when dogs were given a very high dose (10,000 mg to a 15 pound dog). In order for it to be used by the body, it must be broken down and reassembled, with most just passing through the body (in the urine or feces) within a few hours.http://www.ebiochem.com

In comparison, Glucosamine Sulphate has the strongest collection of studies and is the most stable for commercial products. Studies in people, dogs and rats have proven that Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) is actively absorbed at over 90%. When given orally, 87-97% of the quality GS MD’s Choice uses is actively taken from the digestive tract into the blood within 30 minutes. Further, within 4 to 6 hours the chondrocytes (joint cells) have actively taken it from the blood and begun using it. That does NOT mean results will be seen immediately, but that the healing process has started. The problem did not happen overnight, and healing will not occur overnight! Sometimes it takes weeks or months, depending on the problem and severity of the problem.http://www.ebiochem.com

What makes alpha lipoic acid unique?

Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant that is made by the body and is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy. Antioxidants attack “free radicals,” waste products created when the body turns food into energy. Free radicals cause harmful chemical reactions that can damage cells in the body, making it harder for the body to fight off infections. They also damage organs and tissues.http://www.ebiochem.com

What makes alpha lipoic acid unique is that it functions in water and fat, unlike the more common antioxidants vitamins C and E, and it appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been used up. Glutathione is an important antioxidant that helps the body eliminate potentially harmful substances. Alpha lipoic acid increases the formation of glutathione.http://www.ebiochem.com

Another unique point is that Alpha-lipoic acid is both fat- and water-soluble. That means it can work throughout the body. Antioxidants in the body are used up as they attack free radicals, but evidence suggests alpha-lipoic acid may help regenerate these other antioxidants and make them active again.Alpha lipoic acid can cross the blood-brain barrier, a wall of tiny vessels and structural cells, and pass easily into the brain. It is thought to protect brain and nerve tissue by preventing free radical damage.http://www.ebiochem.com

Preliminary studies suggest that alpha lipoic acid may help Peripheral neuropathy. In one of the largest studies on the use of alpha lipoic acid, 181 people took 600 mg, 1200 mg or 1800 mg of alpha lipoic acid a day or a placebo. After 5 weeks, alpha lipoic acid improved symptoms. The dose that was best tolerated while still providing benefit was 600 mg once daily.http://www.ebiochem.com

In the cells of the body, alpha-lipoic acid is changed into dihydrolipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid is not the same as alpha linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 fatty acid that may help heart health (See also: Alpha linolenic acid.) There is confusion between alpha-lipoic acid and alpa linolenic acid because both are sometimes abbreviated ALA. Alpha-lipoic acid is also sometimes called lipoic acid. As an antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid can neutralize free radicals which can damage cells. Free radical damage is thought to contribute to aging and chronic illness.http://www.ebiochem.com

Arbutin—natural and safety in cosmetics

Arbutin (Beta Arbutin) is a new type of skin de-pigmentation and whitening agents, an extract of Bearberry plant which produced by a solid /liquid extraction, an environmentally friendly process.http://www.ebiochem.com

Arbutin used in cosmetic industry:Arbutin protect the skin against damage caused by free radicals, Arbutin is a skin whitening agent which is very popular in Japan and Asian countries for skin de-pigmentation, Arbutin inhibits the formation of melanin pigment by inhibiting Tyrosinase activity.http://www.ebiochem.com

Arbutin is very safe skin agent for external use which does not have toxicity, stimulation, unpleasant odor or side effect such as Hydroqinone.The encapsulation of Arbutin constitute a delivery system to potentialize the effect in time. It is a way to incorporate the hydrophilic Arbutin in lipophilic media. Arbutin give three main properties; Whitening effects, anti- age effect and UVB/ UVC filter.http://www.ebiochem.com

Arbutin in medical use:Back in the 18th century, Arbutin was first used in medical areas as an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agent. Arbutin was used particularly for cystitis, urethritis and pyelitis. These uses still until today where natural medicine uses only natural ingredients to treat any disease.http://www.ebiochem.com

Topical use of arbutin is considered to be safe and effective. Since arbutin is included in various skin products, consideration regarding the effects of the other ingredients is recommended. Prolonged use of arbutin may produce uneven pigmentation such as patches of skin with no pigmentation because its effect is localized.http://www.ebiochem.com

Also arbutin may be used to repress the virulence of bacterial pathogens and to prevent contaminating bacteria, it is also used for treating allergic inflammation of the skin . More recently, Arbutin has been used to prevent pigmentation and to whiten the skin beautifully. In the meanwhile, arbutin can be used to whiten the skin, to prevent liver spots and freckles, to treat sunburn marks and to regulate melanogenesis.http://www.ebiochem.com

Bilberry ingestion improves disease activity in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis

Bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), also referred to as “European blueberries”, and other members of the Vaccinium family possess a naturally high content of polyphenols, of which anthocyanins constitute the biggest fraction with 50–80%. [14] and [15] An anthocyanin rich bilberry extract was shown to alter the expression of various genes implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in an apo E-deficient mouse model.16 In a randomized human study including individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease significant decreases in plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15, and monokine induced by INF-c (MIG) were observed in the group receiving bilberry juice.17 Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited the adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to cultured human epithelial cells.18 In rats, bilberry extract was protective against doxorubicin induced oxidative cardiotoxicity.19 In humans, a decrease in postprandial insulin demand after the ingestion of a bilberry containing drink was shown recently.20 In addition, a potential chemopreventive effect of anthocyanins in colorectal cancer (CRC) was suggested in a pilot trial of human subjects with CRC, where bilberry intake induced a significant decrease of proliferative markers in tumor tissue.http://www.ebiochem.com

In an open pilot trial with a total follow-up of 9 weeks the effect of a daily standardized anthocyanin-rich bilberry preparation was tested in 13 patients with mild to moderate UC. Clinical, biochemical, endoscopic and histologic parameters were assessed.http://www.ebiochem.com

At the end of the 6 week treatment interval 63.4% of patients achieved remission, the primary endpoint, while 90.9% of patients showed a response. In all patients a decrease in total Mayo score was detected (mean: 6.5 and 3.6 at screening and week 7, respectively; p < 0.001). Fecal calprotectin levels significantly decreased during the treatment phase (baseline: mean 778 μg/g, range 192–1790 μg/g; end of treatment: mean 305 μg/g, range < 30–1586 μg/g; p = 0.049), including 4 patients achieving undetectable levels at end of treatment. A decrease in endoscopic Mayo score and histologic Riley index confirmed the beneficial effect. However, an increase of calprotectin levels and disease activity was observed after cessation of bilberry intake. No serious adverse events were observed.http://www.ebiochem.com

This is the first report on the promising therapeutic potential of a standardized anthocyanin-rich bilberry preparation in UC in humans. These results clearly indicate a therapeutic potential of bilberries in UC. Further studies on mechanisms and randomized clinical trials are warranted.http://www.ebiochem.com

How to keep your brain young ?

Many people worry about losing their mental faculties when they get older: forgetting things and people, doing crazy things. Well, there is good news. To start off with, only about 5% of those over 65 suffer from severe disorders involving the memory. The other good news is that there are many things that you can do to reduce the chance that you are part of this 5%. Exercise, a healthy and balanced diet, and avoiding alcohol and tobacco can all help. There are certain foods that you can eat which are known to help brain function.http://www.ebiochem.com

These can include fish and bright vegetables and fruits (spinach, blueberries, strawberries). Nutrients such as B vitamins, calcium, and thiamin also can help. When it comes to exercise, not much is needed to help your mental being. This means as little as 30 minutes a day. Another great way to is to mentally exercise as well. This can include taking a walk, reading, socializing with friends, and even volunteering for others. Shows such as Jeopardy, Scrabble, or Wheel of Fortune are also great. Changing your routine is another great option. Adding some variety to your life will help your brain stay active and make better connections. Focusing on the positive things in your life, rather than the negative, will keep your mental being healthy as well. So go out there and exercise, stay busy, and find things to keep your mind active. Crossword puzzles and cards are great options. So go enjoy your life and live a long, healthy life, both mentally and physically.http://www.ebiochem.com

Protective effects of salidroside on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

Oxidative stress-induced cell damage has long been implicated both in the physiological process of aging and in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases ( [Choi et al., 2006a], [Finkel and Holbrook, 2000] and [Markesbery, 1997]). Oxidative damage, mediated by reactive oxygen species which can be generated following cell lysis, oxidative burst, or the presence of an excess of free transition metals, can attack proteins, deoxynucleic acid, and lipid membranes, thereby disrupting cellular function and integrity ( [Gardner et al., 1997] and [Gorman et al., 1996]). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the main reactive oxygen species, is produced during the redox process and is recently considered as a messenger in intracellular signaling cascades

Salidroside which is extracted from Rhodiola rosea L and has long been used as an adaptogen in traditional Tibetan medicine, has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-aging, anticancer, anti-inflammation, hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects and [Kucinskaite et al., 2004]). For example, salidroside has been found to be protective against neuron cell death induced by glutamate and hypoxia/hypoglycemia ( [Cao et al., 2006] and [Zhang et al., 2004]), and against mitochondria dysfunction induced by sodium azide (Cao et al., 2005). Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effects remains unclear, especially at cellular level. Clarification of the effects of salidroside on apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells may provide a new insight into the mechanism of neuroprotection.

the mRNA levels of thioredoxin, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-I were dramatically decreased by H2O2 treatment. However, pretreatment with salidroside notably induced the expressions of these antioxidant enzymes, especially thioredoxin and heme oxygenase-1.

According to the neuroprotective effects of salidroside on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. Pretreatment with salidroside markedly attenuated H2O2-induced cell viability loss and apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which salidroside protected neuron cells from oxidative stress included the induction of several antioxidant enzymes, thioredoxin, heme oxygenase-1, and peroxiredoxin-I; the downregulation of pro-apoptotic gene Bax and the upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Furthermore, salidroside dose-dependently restored H2O2-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the elevation of intracellular calcium level. These results suggest that salidroside has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis, which might be a potential therapeutic agent for treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases implicated with oxidative stress.

Arthritis Relief and Your Diet

Arthritis affects more than 40 million Americans and is referred to as the most common chronic disease in people over 40.http://www.ebiochem.com

Doctors believe there are over 100 different forms of arthritis, all sharing one main characteristic: they all cause joint inflammation.http://www.ebiochem.com

What can you do to relieve the symptoms of arthritis? A lot.http://www.ebiochem.com

There is a great deal of debate in the medical world about the effects of overall diet on arthritis and using diet toward alleviating the condition.

Doctors have known for a long time that diet affects gout, a specific type of arthritic condition, however the jury remained out for a long time on other common types of arthritis such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.http://www.ebiochem.com

What is known however, is that overall dietary health is important and does come into play. Weight and nutrition are two factors that play a role in arthritic pain.http://www.ebiochem.com

Being overweight can affect certain arthritic conditions, forcing some joints to carry more of a load. This added weight stresses the joints, causing overuse or more wear to components, and pain, especially in the knees.

If you suffer from arthritis make sure you eat good foods and get help from healthcare providers to create and follow a well-balanced dietary plan.http://www.ebiochem.com

To begin with, here are some vitamins, minerals, foods, supplements and herbal applications to consider.http://www.ebiochem.com

Vitamins that have shown to reduce tissue swelling or provide relief include Vitamins B5, B6, B12, the antioxidant vitamins C and E, and vitamin K, which improves bone health.

Several independent studies have found that rheumatoid arthritis patients given increased doses of zinc showed marginal improvement.http://www.ebiochem.com

Other minerals to consider include Boron, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese (not to be taken with calcium), Copper, Germanium and Sulfur.

The National Institutes of Health is studying the food supplements, glucosamine and chondroitin, for use in relieving symptoms of pain and stiffness for some persons with osteoarthritis.http://www.ebiochem.com

Patients with osteoarthritis taking blood-thinners should be careful taking chondroitin as it can increase the blood-thinning and cause excessive bleeding.http://www.ebiochem.com

Fish oil supplements have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing dietary fish intake or fish oil capsules (omega 3 capsules) can relieve inflammatory conditions like arthritis.http://www.ebiochem.com

For more information, see Omega 3 Fats

Glutathione is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and can be safely boosted by consuming its precursors available in the supplements, N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) or undenatured whey protein.http://www.ebiochem.com

For more information, see Glutathione.

Quercetin is also known to help reduce inflammation, while Type II Collagen plays a role in growth and repair of joints, articular cartilage and connective tissue.http://www.ebiochem.com

Because of the risk in overdosing, one should be discouraged from taking doses of vitamins that are higher than recommended without a physician’s direction.

Some vitamins and minerals can actually worsen certain conditions, and the concentration that can be attained through vitamins can be dangerous. It is always better to increase in vitamin or mineral intake through your normal diet.http://www.ebiochem.com

Foods To Avoid

There are many factors to consider with regards to arthritic diets and nutritional healing, and each factor may not apply to each individual.

For example, certain people are allergic to specific foods, and these allergies can indeed worsen arthritic conditions. The best way to approach the situation is to examine each arthritic condition and tailor one’s approach based upon the specifics.

Ingesting foods that contain sodium nitrate or tartrazine can inflame rheumatoid arthritis, while ingesting foods containing a substance called hydrazine can contribute to an arthritic condition connected to lupus.http://www.ebiochem.com

Black walnuts can cause flare-ups in people a rare type of arthritis called Behcet’s Disease.

With osteoarthritis, deterioration of cartilage is a concern. Since there is some evidence that Vitamin A, contributes to cartilage deterioration, those with osteoarthritis should avoid large doses of it.

Although clinical proof is not available, anecdotal evidence suggests that in the case of fibromyalgia, eliminating wheat, dairy, citrus, sugar, aspartame (Nutrasweet), alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco can provide relief.

Many nutritionists and naturopaths suggest that those suffering with rheumatoid arthritis avoid dairy products all together, as they seem to exacerbate rheumatoid arthritis flare-ups.http://www.ebiochem.com

The report “I Cured My Arthritis You Can Too” suggests that white flour aggravates arthritis symptoms.

Disclaimer: The information here is not provided by medical professionals and is not intended as a substitute for medical advice. Please consult your physician before beginning any course of treatment.http://www.ebiochem.com

Protective effect of the green tea component, l-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by a selective and progressive degeneration of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons (Nagatsu and Sawada, 2007). Although, the exact mechanisms of nigral DA neuronal degeneration remains unknown, postmortem studies showed that dying cells bear the signs of apoptosis, in particular chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and caspase activation. Several studies demonstrated that increased oxidative stress and defective mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are more common in PD patients than in normal controls ( [Keeney et al., 2006] and [Schapira, 2008]). Consistent with these findings, much interest has focused on the antioxidants that may be promising therapeutics for PD.http://www.ebiochem.com

Study from Chosun University, it has been known that green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contain potential antioxidant compounds such as l-theanine, caffeine, and various catechins (Chen et al., 2003). Among those chemical components in green tea, l-theanine is a natural amino acid structurally similar to glutamate and is a characteristic flavourous component of tea. Recent studies evidenced that l-theanine has neuroprotective effects on the ischemic brain damage and glutamate-induced cell death in cortical neurons ( [Egashira et al., 2004] and [Kakuda et al., 2002]). Furthermore, other studies reported that l-theanine could easily cross the blood–brain barrier, and acts in the brain ( [Yokogoshi et al., 1998a] and [Yokogoshi et al., 1998b]). On the other hand, the effect of l-theanine against the pathogenesis of PD has not been studied. Therefore, we examined the neuroprotective effects of l-theanine against rotenone- or dieldrin-induced DA neuronal damage. In this study, we found for the first time that l-theanine-mediated neuroprotection in DA neurons was involved in the attenuation of apoptotic cell death and modulation of HO-1, ERK1/2, and neurotrophic factors.http://www.ebiochem.com

Recently, naturally occurring components such as phytochemicals have received great attention because they are perceived as safe and functional compounds to treat the neurodegenerative disorders. We paid special attention to the l-theanine contained in green tea due to its neuroprotective effects ( [Egashira et al., 2004], [Kakuda, 2002] and [Kakuda et al., 2002]). l-Theanine is a naturally occurring amino acid component found in high-grade Japanese green tea (C. sinensis). It has been known that l-theanine has multiple biological activities, such as anti-stress effects (Kimura et al., 2007), suppressive effect against the stimulatory action of caffeine (Kakuda et al., 2000) and the effect of reducing systemic blood pressure (Yokogoshi et al., 1995). l-Theanine could pass through the blood–brain barrier and transported into the brain fairly rapidly after administered orally in animal experiments ( [Yokogoshi et al., 1998a] and [Yokogoshi et al., 1998b]). Recently, it has been proposed that l-theanine has neuroprotective effects against ischemia-induced neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 region and glutamate-induced cell death in cultured rat cortical neurons ( [Kakuda, 2002], [Kakuda et al., 2000] and [Kakuda et al., 2002]). Furthermore, administration of l-theanine enhanced the concentration of dopamine in the adult brain (Yokogoshi et al., 1998a) and enhanced synthesis of neurotrophic factors and neurotransmitters during a nerve-maturing period in the infant brain (Yamada et al., 2007). However, as far as we are aware, there are no studies on the effects of l-theanine on PD. In this study, we found that l-theanine could modulate PD-related neurotoxins-induced cell death in human DA neurons. A number of possible evidences identified apoptotic cell death in the SN of PD patient ( [Anglade et al., 1997] and [Nagatsu and Sawada, 2007]). In accordance with those previous studies, our results showed the essential morphologic form of apoptosis and Caspase-3 activation when treated with rotenone or dieldrin in SH-SY5Y cells ( Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Of interest l-theanine pretreatment significantly attenuated the chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and Caspase-3 activation. From these results, it is clear that l-theanine provides some protection against the apoptotic cell death by PD-related neurotoxins.http://www.ebiochem.com

What is Cinnamic acid?

Cinnamic acid<Chemical formula: C9H8O2>, also known as beta cinnamic acid, 3-phenyl-2-acrylic. It is the organic acid that is separated from cinnamon or benzoin or Cinnamic acid produced by plant cinnamic acid deamination degradation. Cinnamic acid is also part of the biosynthetic shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Cinnamic acid is freely soluble in benzene, diethyl ether, acetone, and it is insoluble in hexane. It is used to manufacture perfumery compounds and is mainly used in flavors and food additives, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetic, agricultural chemicals, organic synthesis, etc.

Chemically, in cinnamic acids the 3-phenyl acrylic acid functionality offers three main reactive sites; substitution at the phenyl ring, addition at the α,β- unsaturation and the reactions of the carboxylic acid functionality. Owing to these chemical aspects cinnamic acid derivatives received much attention in medicinal research as traditional as well as recent synthetic antitumor agents. We observed that in spite of their rich medicinal tradition, cinnamic acid derivatives and their anticancer potentials remained underutilized for several decades since the first published clinical use in 1905. In last two decades, there has been huge attention towards various cinnamoyl derivatives and their antitumor efficacy.