Infiltration of spiro-OMeTAD into mesoporous TiO2

A recent research shows that the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2(,7,7(-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine) 9,9(-spirobifluorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. We have developed procedures to measure pore filling quantitatively using XPS depth profiling and absorption spectroscopy.We found that solution infiltration of spiro-OMeTAD in mesoporous TiO2 films effectively penetrates the entire depth of the film. The filling fraction is as high as 60–70% for films with thickness< 3 mm; however, as the film thickness increases, the filling fraction goes down, which may be the cause of poor efficiency of thick ss-DSCs.We have used a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration to increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of ss-DSCs. Development of >10% efficient ss-DSCs will most likely require >5-mm-thick TiO2 films, and such significant increase in thickness will require both reduction in recombination and improvement in pore filling.

It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-mm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60–65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device.

Discussion on omega-3 fortification

1. What do you consider to be the biggest area of innovation / product development in the market?

The area where most innovation has and will be occurring is in the omega-3 fortification of beverages and food applications where oxidative stability is required. Since omega-3s are one of the most consumed nutritional ingredients worldwide, the natural progression is the incorporation into traditional food and beverages.

2. Considering the increase in information on the topic in the trade and consumer media, what’s your perception of consumer concern with the sustainability of marine-sourced omega-3s, and how have you looked to address that with your customers and consumers?

Sustainability is critical to commercial success due to not only our responsibility to the environment, but to the consumer’s increased awareness of the need for sustainability. We believe this area of sustainability can better be addressed by organizations such as GOED.

As an omega-3 ingredient delivery company, we continue to work with our upstream suppliers for sustainable sources and the discovery of future supplies, which can come from purification of lower concentrate omega-3s to vegetarian sources.

3. In terms of market maturation, where do you see omega-3s on the continuum?

We believe there is significant potential growth of the omega-3 industry and it should continue at a sustainable rate based on the narrowing technology gap. In the past, oxidative instability prevented the incorporation of omega-3s into certain food and beverage categories. Recent technological advancements have fostered the continued growth of the market.

4. What do you perceive the consumer understanding is of short-chain versus long-chain omega-3s, and what efforts has your company undertaken to educate consumers about the differences among sources?

We find that consumers have a very basic awareness of omega-3s but lack an overall understanding of their wide-ranging benefits. Raising the level of consumer awareness and additional education is most certainly needed. Understanding the critical importance of consumer education for the industry, we are implementing an educational website. This site will provide basic omega-3 information to address short vs. long-chain differences and the many benefits from health experts in various fields of expertise. Our site will link to other reputable sites to enhance the consumer awareness and omega-3 educational experience. In addition, we have also expanded our relationship with GOED in order to support their educational and awareness mission.

5. What countries are currently more evolved in terms of the consumer market for omega-3 products, and where do you see more potential for CPG firms?

From our perspective, the U.K., France, China, the United States and additional future potential for Western Europe demonstrate the most-evolved consumer markets. North America and China are currently the largest markets for the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids. This evidence makes them a prime area for product development and innovation. CPG firms tend to take a conservative view of the work as it relates to innovation and product development. In some cases, innovation is tested in other countries through CPG firms and then brought into the United States as a follow-up. Nonetheless, we see a steady trend for omega-3 fortification in a wider range of products due to consumers’ growing demand for the ingredient.

6. What area needs more emphasis in terms of scientific research and clinical trials related to omega-3s and their health benefits?

We believe there should be a greater emphasis on the health benefits associated with the prevention, treatment and support of brain and mind-related illnesses. The possibility of slowing the progression of Alzheimer’s, lowering depression in adults and improving cognitive development in children is an important category. The biggest challenge for the industry is the inability to make claims on finished products when they are associated with such incredible health benefits.


Green tea and red wine extract can block AD cell channel

British researchers at the Leeds university synthesis amyloid ball in the test tube, put it into the and other animal brain cells, then add green tea polyphenols active ingredient EGCG and red wine natural ingredient resveratrol. The results showed that amyloid ball shape is disorganized, no longer binding brain cells and destroy its function.

Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide cause neurotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and memory impairments which underlie Alzheimers disease (AD). The cellular prion protein (PrPC) was recently identified as a high-affinity neuronal receptor for Aβ oligomers. We report that fibrillar Aβ oligomers recognised by the OC antibody, which have been shown to correlate with the onset and severity of AD, bind preferentially to cells and neurons expressing PrPC. The binding of Aβ oligomers to cell surface PrPC, as well as their downstream activation of Fyn kinase, was dependent on the integrity of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In SH-SY5Y cells, fluorescence microscopy and co-localisation with sub-cellular markers revealed that the Aβ oligomers co-internalised with PrPC, accumulated in endosomes and subsequently trafficked to lysosomes. The cell surface binding, internalisation and downstream toxicity of Aβ oligomers was dependent on the transmembrane low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1). The binding of Aβ oligomers to cell surface PrPC impaired its ability to inhibit the activity of the β-secretase BACE1 which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce Aβ. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the red wine extract resveratrol both re-modelled the fibrillar conformation of Aβ oligomers. The resulting non-fibrillar oligomers displayed significantly reduced binding to PrPC-expressing cells and were no longer cytotoxic. These data indicate that soluble, fibrillar Aβ oligomers bind to PrPC in a conformation-dependent manner and require the integrity of lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1 for their cytotoxicity, thus revealing potential targets to alleviate the neurotoxic properties of Aβ oligomers in AD.

The researchers also found in the experiment, if amyloid ball and protein protein binding, will trigger more amyloid ball generation, this is a deadly vicious cycle. They plan to find out the amyloid ball and protein proteins interact and kill brain cells.

Professor of the university of Leeds nigel HuPo said, theoretically, it’s hopeful to find drug targets to give effective treat alzheimer, their research is to deepen understanding alzheimer’s etiology and processes in early period.

What Are the Benefits of Olive Oil for Hair Growth?

The benefits of olive oil for hair growth might relate to the ability of olive oil to make the hair stronger. Olive oil may help nourish the scalp, which could prevent problems like dandruff that contribute to hair loss over time. Another benefit of olive oil for hair growth is that it might be able to strengthen the individual strands of hair, thereby making them less prone to breaking off and splitting at the ends. Hair elasticity may also increase when olive oil is used regularly, and this increased elasticity could help keep hair from coming out when it is brushed or blow-dried.

There are many different ways in which a person can use olive oil on her hair. Some people choose to add a few tablespoons of olive oil to their existing hair care products. This is typically done by putting a drop or two of olive oil into shampoo or conditioner and then shaking up the product and applying it to the hair normally. The addition of olive oil to hair products may increase their effectiveness, particularly if the product in question tends to dry out the hair. People who are prone to oily, greasy hair might want to apply products containing olive oil to only the ends of their hair, because the addition of olive oil could make the existing oiliness on the scalp worse.

Some people apply olive oil for hair growth directly to their hair without mixing it up into any other hair products. This is typically done by either rubbing a small amount of olive oil into the ends of hair or by applying it to the entire head. The best results from doing this tend to be achieved when the olive oil is allowed to rest on the hair for several hours before removal. It may be beneficial to leave the olive oil on the hair overnight and then wash it out in the morning. If olive oil is left on the hair overnight, care should be taken to protect pillows and pillow cases because the oil might leave greasy stains on bedding.

Olive oil for hair growth may be most effective when pure olive oil is used. When using olive oil on hair, a person should make an effort to select 100-percent olive oil that does not contain any other ingredients. Some types of olive oil might contain artificial ingredients or preservatives that may be capable of damaging hair. Even though many people believe that olive oil is effective for hair growth and health, it may not work for everyone. Sudden, severe hair loss should be evaluated by a doctor because it might be a sign of a serious underlying medical condition.

What is Extra Light Olive Oil?

Extra light olive oil is olive oil that has been heavily refined so that it has a pale color and minimal flavor. The term is also not heavily governed by food regulation agencies in many countries, so the ingredients in this oil may vary. Since it has a lower smoking point than many other types of olive oil, it is suitable for high heat cooking and baking. The neutral flavor makes it a poor choice for dishes in which the taste of olive oil is desired, however.

There are several ways to make extra light olive oil. The first involves heavily refining olive oil through heating and a series of filters. The end product is a very pale oil that is virtually scentless and has a very light flavor. Other producers make olive oil extra light by adding virgin olive oil to other oils, such as vegetable or canola. The resulting oil has a high smoking point and a very light flavor provided by adding a dash of olive oil.

The labeling of olive oil can be somewhat misleading. Some consumers, especially in the United States, associate “light” and “extra light” with foods that are low in fat. Extra light olive oil has the same fat content as regular oil, since olive oil is 100% fat. In this instance, the “light” is a reference to the color and flavor.

Like other oils, extra light olive oil should be stored in a cool dry place to prevent it from going rancid. When stored well, the olive oil should last for around six months. Refrigeration can extend the life for up to one year. If an oil is flavored with additions such as peppers and herbs, refrigeration is highly recommended since the plant material can cause it to go rancid more quickly.

When frying foods or subjecting them to high heat, extra light olive oil is a good choice of cooking oil. The dish can always be finished with virgin or extra virgin olive oil for its flavor without the risk of burning. When making baked goods such as breads, this oil can also be used, as it is generally agreed that the flavor of virgin olive oil burns off when it is exposed to high heat, making the use of such oils in baking and high-heat cooking rather wasteful.


What Is Heparin sodium?

Heparin sodium is a sulphated glycosaminoglycans prepared from the intestinal mucosa of healthy pigs. it has the characteristic property of delaying the clotting of freshly shed blood through its action on antithrombin iii which inhibits the activity of thrombin and factor xa. thrombin and factor xa influence conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which is the main clotting process.

Heparin sodium function
1. The treatment of various diseases concurrent disseminated intravascular coagulopathy early.
2. Prevent artery and vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
3. Treatment of dynamic, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, ischemic stroke, unstable angina (to reduce symptoms, prevent myocardial infarction), acute myocardial infarction (to prevent early to infarction and infarction area extension, reduce mortality).
4. A heart-lung hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or as anticoagulant drugs.
5. As dissolve thrombus therapy’s maintenance therapy.

6.As vitro anticoagulants when used for blood transfusion to prevent blood coagulation and  save blood in blood bank.

Comfortable Change start from Herbal tea with honey and cinnamon

Many people love honey,Honey is a kind of natural food, taste sweet, contains monosaccharides, do not need to digesting can be absorbed by human body, for women, young, especially the old man is more good health function. Also many people love cinnamon which have good antihypertensive effect and anti-inflammatory effect. And when used separately, each has its own healing capabilities.

But when the two are mixed together and consumed, magic can happen. Okay, not really magic, but some have called this an “elixir of health and immortality”. But why is this mixture given such a high prestige? Here we will talk about just a few of the great benefits that this mixture can produce for people. The first we will discuss is digestion: honey combined with cinnamon has been shown to speed up digestion, and can help you digest some of those foods that you sometimes struggle with. Next, bad cholesterol: 3 teaspoons of cinnamon mixed with 2 tablespoons of honey and placed in green tea three times a day, and you will see your cholesterol lower in just days. If you need to lose weight, you can benefit as well. A teaspoon each of honey and cinnamon, cooked with water, drunk twice a day, will help you to prevent fat from building up in the body. Honey and cinnamon can also help you to strengthen your immune system, preventing illnesses from both viruses and bacteria. A few other benefits include help with fatigue, reduction of joint inflammation/arthritis, and prevention of bladder infections. If you suffer from any of these ailments, or simply want to improve your health, do a little research and see if this is the right elixir for you and your needs.

Natural properties of Pepper

Peppers come in a variety of types, from black peppercorns to red to green to cayenne. And each has a different flavor, texture, and use. Here, we will focus on black pepper, what it is, and some of the things that you can use it for naturally to help solve problems that you may be having. In fact, pepper has many uses in medicine that people have utilized for many years. Pepper has been shown to help improve one’s appetite, reduce stomach problems, and help mucus formation subside.

One can mix a little pepper with honey to help a person with flu symptoms: cough, low appetite, and chills. Asthma can also be treated. Pepper is also a good treatment for high fevers, and if taken on a regular basis, can improve strength, vitality, and vigor. Pepper also has been known to help with insomnia, and is great to give a new mom after delivery to clean out the uterus. Pepper has also, for hundreds of years, been used as an anti-inflammatory. It can help the body to absorb nutrients from foods better. Pepper is also loaded with its own nutrients, including calcium, zinc, iron, potassium, and magnesium. Pepper is also full of many vitamins, including many of the crucial B vitamins that we need each day. Lastly, pepper can be used in the dental field to prevent swelling of the gums, as well as for an antiseptic for tooth decay. When using pepper as a treatment, one should be careful to stay away from alcohol, tea, tobacco, coffee and excess salt. So, now that you know pepper can be quite the commodity for a variety of reasons, go out there and enjoy its flavor and many health benefits.

How to alleviate aging?

The biological and natural process of growing old is called aging, and it is an inevitable part of life.All metabolic or other chemical processes taking place within the human body are affected in different ways: one of the easiest way’s to notice aging is that the hair cover on the body gets thinner and there is a very gradual but noticeable graying or silvering of the hair on the head. As we age another change is in the quality of the skin, it loses its elasticity, becoming coarser and can no longer maintain its tautness, the skin tone changes and becomes duller.

Alongside the changes occurring in the general skin texture, the most obvious sign of aging is the appearance of wrinkles, and the formation of crow’s feet around the eyes. The process of aging also affects bone density and calcium uptake internally and it accelerates the loss of mineral ions at the same time. Bone density loss due to reduction in ions like calcium leads to painful joints and in cases is the warning flag signaling the possible and painful onset of arthritis, another aging related symptom besides painful joints is that muscle mass is lost and muscles lose their flexibility, becoming flabby and weak, the bones themselves lose their strength, senility often sets in and in a majority of cases, besides our normal mental acuities our general memory declines.

With the coming of old age, this process slows down appreciably almost to a crawl and becomes less effective, there is a decrease in cellular growth in an older person and hence a slow but certain break down of all biological functions within the body sets in.

Antioxidants are the primary weapons in our fight against free radicals, these compounds are manufactured quite normally by the body’s own cells and are obtained through a normal human diet, antioxidants are the first line of defense that can absorb free radicals, and through a process of chemically combining with them in the body, they annihilate so to speak the free radicals inside the body before these have had the chance to interfere with very important biological processes-most of which may have a direct bearing on aging. Green and leafy vegetables, including all herbs and fruits are the greatest sources of antioxidants and are naturally occurring sources for these compounds.

Herbal and herb based supplements are excellent sources for antioxidants. Water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol) are known to be naturally occurring antioxidants that can effectively handle free radical production within the body. The water soluble vitamin vitamin C and flavonoids are active inside the cellular structure and are useful in water retention and maintenance of the osmotic potential within cells, this is important as cellular water content and retention is very important for a healthy body, and a good water reserve is important for cellular activity, since the human body is 70% water. A lot of water should therefore be ingested daily, recommended quantities are at least 7 glasses a day.

The important fat based vitamin-vitamin E helps in the formation and the maintenance of the lipoid membranes that make up a large part of the cellular architecture, and is essential for fatty tissue formation and function within the cellular environment.

The B complex vitamins, especially the folates such as folic acid, a B vitamin, helps maintain the production and normal functioning of red blood cells (RBC’s) especially their oxygen binding properties, and their proper structural. And these vitamins in addition also play a very important part in the correct and seamless functioning of nervous tissue and in their ability to conduct nervous impulses in a proper way.

Additionally, some supplements address very particular and specific areas of the body and have peculiar importance. Glucosamine is a compound that is prevalent in cartilage and cartilaginous tissue, and may aid in the maintenance of cartilaginous tissues around the joints and in easing the major chronic pain arising due to the onset of arthritis in and around the joints.

Commonly used essential oils for aging:Lavender,Myrrh,Neroli。Rose,Rosemary,Black Chokeberry,Wild Yam,Schisandra,Tibetan Rhodiola.



What Are the Different Uses of Paraffin Wax?

Paraffin wax, a type of alkane hydrocarbon, has many uses in a variety of products, including candles, food, adhesives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This white, tasteless, odorless, wax also is an effective lubricant. Paraffin wax is insoluble in water and has a melting point between 115° Fahrenheit (46° Celsius) and 154° F (68° C), which makes it useful in a variety ways.

In cosmetics, the wax is an ingredient that softens skin and makes products creamy and shiny. Many lipstick, creams and lotions contain paraffin. It is so well known for making skin soft and smooth that many stores sell paraffin wax baths for hands, elbows and feet. A few basketball players coat their hands with the wax prior to games because soft hands allow them to catch and throw the ball better. The wax also covers pills and tablets to give them a polished, easy-to-swallow finish, and it helps to delay the release of the medicine.

Paraffin wax is used in food as a preservative and stiffener, and it adds luster. Some cheeses are encased in the wax for protection against moisture and mildew. The wax also will extend the life and freshness of fruit, and it is a fundamental ingredient in gum. Many chocolatiers add this kind of wax to melted chocolate so, when the chocolate dries, it has a delicious sheen and is just soft enough that it is easy to bite and chew.

One useful property of this type of wax is that it is a thermoplastic material, meaning it is a solid at room temperature but, when it is applied to something while hot and liquid, it will stick to the surface. When the wax cools, it creates a strong joint. This property has been developed for use with high-speed machinery in packaging, furniture, shoe manufacturing and cigarette manufacturing.

The biggest sector that utilizes paraffin wax is the candle industry. The refined paraffin wax used for candles is safe and complies with strict United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. The high melting point of paraffin wax allows the wick to burn at a slow pace, only burning down as the wax gradually melts.

Rubbing a bar of the wax on the bottom of your skis or snowboard will help to ensure a fast run down a snow-covered mountain. It also will help protect the equipment from the resulting moisture. Wax on the bottom of a surfboard also protects the board from the salty water. can offer the above series of products

Please feel free to contact us, if you have any question.