What Are the Benefits of Vitamin B6 for Women?

The group of B vitamins includes B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid, biotin and pantothenic acid, according to the website KidsHealth from Nemours. These vitamins play several important roles in your body, including energy production and nourishing the brain. Vitamin B6 is also called pyridoxine, and you can get your daily supply from foods such as cereal grains, carrots, spinach, milk, cheese, eggs, fish or supplements. If supplementing, please talk with your physician and remember that vitamins and supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Pregnancy Symptoms

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is commonly referred to as morning sickness. The University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) reports that 30 mg of vitamin B6 each day may help to relieve morning sickness. Although not all studies have not shown the same effects, it’s worth discussing taking vitamin B6 with your physician when you’re pregnant.

Premenstrual Syndrome

Information on the effectiveness of vitamin B6 for relieving premenstrual symptoms, or PMS, comes primarily from female patients and physicians, states the UMMC. As UMMC points out, clinical trails on B6 use for PMS have shown no benefit, but it’s possible the improvement of symptoms may vary in each individual. Also, it usually takes up to 3 months to see any difference in your symptoms, so if you conclude your supplementation before then, you could miss out on any potential benefit of vitamin B6 for PMS.

Hair Growth

It’s not just men who can suffer hair loss. Women also lose their hair, and unlike men, it can begin at any age before age 50 and afterwards, states the International Society for Hair Restoration Surgery. Hair consists of protein called keratin, and B-vitamins—along with amino acids—are building blocks of the protein, according to Seymour M. Weaver, a Houston-based dermatologist. In a 2001 Polish study published in the journal “Wiadomosci lekarskie” and on the National Institutes of Health website. vitamin B6 injections improved women’s hair condition and reduced hair loss, including hair loss from diffuse alopecia.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

More women than men suffer from this autoimmune condition, which causes symptoms such as joint inflammation, swelling and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, rates also increased in women between 1995 and 2007. According to the UMMC, RA is linked to low levels of vitamin B6. Eating more foods rich in this vitamin, or supplementing your diet with it, can help to lower inflammation and may provide some relief from rheumatoid arthritis.

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What is Gestational diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. When you are pregnant, too much glucose is not good for your baby. Out of every 100 pregnant women in the United States, between three and eight get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the first time when a woman is pregnant. Gestational diabetes goes away when you have your baby, but it does increase your risk for having diabetes later. http://www.ebiochem.com

If you already have diabetes before you get pregnant, you need to monitor and control your blood sugar levels.http://www.ebiochem.com

Either type of diabetes during pregnancy raises the risk of problems for the baby and the mother. To help reduce these risks, you should follow your meal plan, exercise, test your blood sugar and take your medicine.http://www.ebiochem.com

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate

Millions people suffer from osteoarthritis, an often painful condition in which the cushioning cartilage between bones wears away. Many people are trying new therapies and dietary supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in their search for relief.http://www.ebiochem.com

Glucosamine is found naturally in the body. It stimulates the formation and repair of articular cartilage. Over-the-counter supplements come from animal sources. Chondroitin sulfate is another natural substance found in the body. It prevents other body enzymes from degrading the building blocks of joint cartilage. The type sold in health-food stores and pharmacies is derived from animal products.http://www.ebiochem.com

Both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have been used in Europe for several years, with few reported side effects. Both supplements also have some anti-inflammatory effects that may account for the pain relief.http://www.ebiochem.com

But there is no proof that either substance, taken singly or in combination, will actually slow the degenerative process or restore cartilage in arthritic joints. All studies done to date have been short and focused on pain relief. A long-term study is just beginning, sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.http://www.ebiochem.com

Dietary supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are not tested or analyzed by the Food and Drug Administration before they are sold to consumers. That means consumers can’t be sure they’re getting what they pay for when they purchase bottles labeled “Glucosamine/Chondroitin.”http://www.ebiochem.com

Is Guaifenesin Good Enough for Children?

In general, guaifenesin, a medication used to relieve chest congestion, is considered safe for use by children. Often, parents administer it to their children for the purpose of relieving chest congestion caused by cold and flu viruses, and it is an included ingredient in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications. The fact that this medication is generally considered safe for children doesn’t mean there are no risks, however. Some children may experience side effects when using it, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time, and it may not prove to be the best option for very young children. Beyond safety, however, it is important to understand that using guaifenesin for children may not prove effective in all cases.

Using guaifenesin for children generally is safe as long as it is administered based on the dosing recommendations on the bottle and with the approval of the child’s doctor. When a person purchases this medication over the counter, the packaging usually includes dosage information that is based on age. For example, a person may find one dosage recommendation for adults and children over 12 and another dosage for children under 12. Often, such medication also lists an age for which the drug is not recommended. Since medication can affect children in a far different manner than it does adults, parents are often advised to consult with a pediatrician before giving their children this or any other OTC medication, even if it is usually considered safe.

When taken according to the instructions on the packaging and with the approval of the child’s doctor, guaifenesin is likely to prove safe but can still cause unpleasant side effects. For example, some children may become nauseated and vomit while taking this medication. Others might develop headaches, feel dizzy, or become drowsy while taking it. More serious side effects of guaifenesin for children include allergic reactions and kidney stones. It also is important to note that if a child takes a medication that contains other active ingredients in addition to guaifenesin, he may experience additional side effects.http://www.ebiochem.com

It is important to keep in mind that guaifenesin is generally not recommended for very young children unless a doctor approves its use. For example, many experts recommend against using guaifenesin for children under four years of age, as they may face an increased risk of serious side effects from the drug. Some of the side effects may even prove life threatening in a child of this age.http://www.ebiochem.com

What Are the Different Uses of Paraffin Wax?

Paraffin wax, a type of alkane hydrocarbon, has many uses in a variety of products, including candles, food, adhesives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This white, tasteless, odorless, wax also is an effective lubricant. Paraffin wax is insoluble in water and has a melting point between 115° Fahrenheit (46° Celsius) and 154° F (68° C), which makes it useful in a variety ways.http://www.ebiochem.com/

In cosmetics, the wax is an ingredient that softens skin and makes products creamy and shiny. Many lipstick, creams and lotions contain paraffin. It is so well known for making skin soft and smooth that many stores sell paraffin wax baths for hands, elbows and feet. A few basketball players coat their hands with the wax prior to games because soft hands allow them to catch and throw the ball better. The wax also covers pills and tablets to give them a polished, easy-to-swallow finish, and it helps to delay the release of the medicine.http://www.ebiochem.com/

Paraffin wax is used in food as a preservative and stiffener, and it adds luster. Some cheeses are encased in the wax for protection against moisture and mildew. The wax also will extend the life and freshness of fruit, and it is a fundamental ingredient in gum. Many chocolatiers add this kind of wax to melted chocolate so, when the chocolate dries, it has a delicious sheen and is just soft enough that it is easy to bite and chew.http://www.ebiochem.com/

One useful property of this type of wax is that it is a thermoplastic material, meaning it is a solid at room temperature but, when it is applied to something while hot and liquid, it will stick to the surface. When the wax cools, it creates a strong joint. This property has been developed for use with high-speed machinery in packaging, furniture, shoe manufacturing and cigarette manufacturing.http://www.ebiochem.com/

The biggest sector that utilizes paraffin wax is the candle industry. The refined paraffin wax used for candles is safe and complies with strict United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. The high melting point of paraffin wax allows the wick to burn at a slow pace, only burning down as the wax gradually melts.http://www.ebiochem.com/

Rubbing a bar of the wax on the bottom of your skis or snowboard will help to ensure a fast run down a snow-covered mountain. It also will help protect the equipment from the resulting moisture. Wax on the bottom of a surfboard also protects the board from the salty water.http://www.ebiochem.com/

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What Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds within the molecule. They are called essential fatty acids because the human body is unable to manufacture its own. Some forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be obtained from plant-based foods, and other forms can be obtained only from animal sources. Unlike saturated fat, many studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats are good for the body, particularly for the heart and brain. http://www.ebiochem.com/

The difference between polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat is that polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond situated between the carboxylic acid and the methyl group. The first double bond can be located either in the third, sixth or ninth position away from the methyl group, which then determines whether it is omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9. Omega-3 and omega-6 are examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and omega-9 is an example of monounsaturated fatty acids. It is important to consume omega-3 and omega-6 in a healthy ratio of about 1 to 3 in order for the body to be able to absorb them properly.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are the two forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids that cannot be manufactured in the body, so they must be obtained from the diet. ALA is a form of omega-3 fatty acid, and it is available from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, soybeans, avocados and leafy greens. After it is in the body, the ALA is manufactured into two other forms of omega-3 known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA also can be obtained from animal sources such as salmon, sardines, mackerel and shrimp. In some cases, the body is unable to use ALA, and thus EPA and DHA from animal sources are essential.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

LA is a form of omega-6, which can be obtained from plant-based foods such as nuts and seeds, avocados and many vegetable oils, such as soybean, sunflower and corn oil. After it is in the body, it is manufactured into two other forms of omega-6 known as arachidonic acid (AA) and gamma linolenic (GLA). AA and GLA also can be obtained from animal sources, such as eggs, poultry, meat and dairy. Again, these forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in cases when the body is unable to use LA to manufacture its own.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

The health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids include an improved heart health, improved memory and protection against cancer, arthritis and asthma. Studies show that the healthy oils have the ability to lower high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as to maintain a healthy heart rhythm. Negative side effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids can also occur if the omega-6s are consumed in excess amounts. Some of these side effects include heart disease, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis and depression.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

What Is a Cyanohydrin?

A cyanohydrin is a chemical unit known as a functional group. In chemistry, a functional group is a distinct unit of atoms that make up part of the structure of larger molecules, but may also exist as separate compounds as well. Functional groups act as a unit during chemical reactions, and will be affected in similar ways during chemical reactions, regardless of the chemical compound they may be part of. Cyanohydrins, some of which are found in nature, are organic compounds, and are important for many industrial applications such as the production of carboxylic and amino acids. http://www.ebiochem.com/

The term cyanohydrin comes from the units that make up such a molecule. Every cyanohydrin is made up of a cyanide group (CN), a hydroxyl group (OH), a carbon atom (C) and two other sub units, which can be hydrogen atoms (H) or either of two chemical groups (R) called alkyls and aryls. For this reason, the general chemical formula of any cyanohydrin is written as R2H(OH)CN.  http://www.ebiochem.com/

Ketones and aldehydes, which are two classes of organic molecules, when combined with a cyanide or nitrile, can result in the formation of cyanohydrins. Cyanides and nitriles are chemicals that have either a cyanide group or a nitrile group as part of their chemical structure, both of which contain a hydrogen and a carbon atom, but bonded in different ways. Hydrogen cyanide, one of the most common cyanides, is an extremely toxic chemical. Many people mistakenly assume that cyanide is only one chemical, but in fact there are several cyanides, including sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide, all of which may be used to produce cyanoydrins. Cyanohydrins may be prepared in a number of ways using cyanide or nitrile compounds, sometimes in combination. http://www.ebiochem.com/

Many of the most common cyanohydrins are themselves toxic or otherwise hazardous. Acetone cyanohydrin, which is used in the production of acrylic and other chemicals, such as pesticides, is very dangerous. It is a skin and eye irritant, can be fatal if its fumes are inhaled, and is an explosion hazard as well. Some naturally occurring cyanohydrins such as mandelonitrile and amygdalin are found in very small amounts in the pits of certain stone fruits, such as some plums and apricots. These compounds are not usually found in large enough amounts to be dangerous, but if ingested in quantity, can be harmful or fatal. http://www.ebiochem.com/

What Is Terfenadine?

Terfenadine is an antihistamine used to prevent common symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, and itching, that was withdrawn from the United States pharmaceutical market in 1998. The drug is used to treat these common allergy symptoms as well as hives and any allergic condition that causes inflammation. It was also marketed under the brand name Seldane. http://www.ebiochem.com

When it was discontinued, terfenadine was replaced by fexofenadine, which is also an antihistamine and decongestant that is prescribed by a doctor, but which has fewer side effects. Allergic reactions such as trouble breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, hives, seizures, and swelling of the throat, tongue, or face have been documented in patients who have taken terfenadine. Drowsiness and dizziness, headaches, nausea, and dry skin have also been noted in many patients. Since the antihistamine has so many side effects, it has been advised that people who take it should be careful when operating machines or driving. Alcohol can increase the sedative side effects of the drug, so it is also advised to be cautious when drinking. http://www.ebiochem.com

Terfenadine also has adverse reactions with other medications. Irregular heartbeats can result if it is taken with antifungal drugs, various antibiotics, as well as ulcer medications. Adverse reactions can also result if terfenadine is taken with some heart medications, antidepressants, caffeine, or diet pills. The antihistamine should also not be ingested by anyone who has lung, urinary, kidney, or heart problems. http://www.ebiochem.com

An overdose of terfenadine can be very dangerous. If someone exceeds the recommended dosage, they must seek medical attention immediately, and should go to an emergency room if a primary physician is not available. When a dose is missed, it should be skipped if the time for the next dose is near. A double dose is dangerous. An irregular heartbeat can be a sign of an overdose, as well as headaches, drowsiness, or vomiting. http://www.ebiochem.com

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that physicians should discuss alternative treatments with patients who were taking terfenadine in the 1990s. Its replacement, fexofenandine, was found at that point to be just as effective but did not lead to potentially life-threatening heart problems when taken in conjunction with common medications. This alternative medication is found in Allegra-D® which, like many similar prescription drugs, can also cause serious cardiac or neurological symptoms. Caution is still advised for people who suffer from heart and kidney problems as well as diabetes. http://www.ebiochem.com

What Is Piroxicam?

Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is used to ease the pain and swelling caused by arthritis and other conditions involving inflammation. It works by reducing the amount of prostaglandins in the body, which is the substance that causes some types of painful swelling and fever. While many people experience few or no side effects, there is a potential for minor or serious side effects, and there are some precautions that must be taken while using piroxicam.http://www.ebiochem.com

The most serious potential side effects of piroxicam are an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, ulcers, and bleeding or tears in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking NSAIDs should seek immediate medical attention if they experience pain in the chest, weakness in one side or area of the body, difficulty breathing, or slurred speech, as these symptoms may indicate a heart attack or stroke. Stomach pain, heartburn, bloody vomit, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, or black or bloody stools may indicate serious gastrointestinal side effects, and medical attention should be sought right away. http://www.ebiochem.com

Some of the more common and less serious side effects of piroxicam include diarrhea, cramping or gas, headache, or lightheadedness. If any of these symptoms are persistent, severe, or if any other unexplainable symptoms are experienced, medical attention should be sought. Patients taking this medication, particularly in higher doses or for longer periods of time, may need to be medically monitored to ensure that the medication is safe and effective for them. http://www.ebiochem.com

There are a number of medications that may interact with piroxicam, so it is important that a patient tell the prescribing doctor about all medicine and supplements taken, including over the counter medicines, vitamins, and supplements. Blood thinning medications, such as warfarin, ibuprofen, other NSAIDs, and oral steroids, may increase the risk of adverse side effects. Piroxicam may increase the toxicity of lithium, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and other drugs, so patients taking these drugs will need to be carefully monitored. http://www.ebiochem.com

Women who are pregnant, particularly in the later stages of pregnancy, or nursing should speak to a doctor about whether this medication is appropriate for them. People with a history of heart disease, stroke, ulcers, bleeding stomach or intestines, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or who smoke should speak to the doctor about their medical history. The risks of taking piroxicam may outweigh the benefits in some circumstances, but the patient may need extra monitoring. http://www.ebiochem.com

Pharmacology of Troxerutin

Troxerutin is derived from the Japanese pagoda tree and has been widely used in Western medicine since the 1960s.Troxerutin is a medication used in the treatment of varicose veins and other disorders which cause blood to pool. It is in a class of medications known as flavonoids and works by repairing damage to capillaries and making them less susceptible to subsequent damage. http://www.ebiochem.com

It can inhibit platelet aggregation, prevent thrombosis, can cure the vascular injury induced by 5 serotonin or bradykinin, increase the capillary resistance, reduce the capillary permeability, prevent edema caused by the increasement of vascular permeability. It has the significant protective effect to acute ischemic brain injury.As the treatment of cerebral thrombosis or the sequela due from the cerebral embolism, such as the hemiplegia, aphasia and myocardial infarction syndrome, arteriosclerosis, central retinitis, phlebitis of thrombosis, varicose veins, edema caused by the vascular permeability rising. http://www.ebiochem.com

Treatment with troxerutin is administered in a two different phases. In the first phase of treatment, medication is injected either into a vein or a muscle. Alternatively, or sometimes additionally, a patient may be given an oral dose of troxerutin for two to four weeks. Dosing is usually higher at the beginning of treatment and then lowered to maintenance levels once symptoms improve. http://www.ebiochem.com

After initial treatment with injections or oral medication, patients may be given a topical treatment of troxerutin. The medication is usually suspended in a gel, which is spread on the affected area once or twice daily. This method of administration is quite effective in relieving the symptoms of varicose veins and in reversing the damage to the blood vessels that is caused by the condition. http://www.ebiochem.com