What Causes Hypertension?

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is often called a “silent disease” because you usually don’t know that you have it. Hypertension is the leading cause of stroke and a major cause of heart attack. Unfortunately, in 9 out of 10 cases, the causes of hypertension are unknown. This type of hypertension is called primary hypertension. Although not causes of hypertension, there are risk factors (such as being overweight) that increase a person’s chances of developing the condition.

When the causes of hypertension are known, the condition is called secondary hypertension. Causes of secondary hypertension include preeclampsia, kidney disease, and sleep apnea. Other causes of hypertension include certain medications, such as birth control pills.

Does Stress Cause Hypertension?

Stress and hypertension are linked in many people’s minds, but hypertension is not the same as “nervous tension.” Many people who are calm and have no stress in their lives have hypertension. While short-term stress can cause blood pressure to go up for a while, the impact of long-term stress on hypertension is not currently known.

How to diagnose Hypertension?

Your health care provider will check your blood pressure several times before diagnosing you with high blood pressure. It is normal for your blood pressure to be different depending on the time of day.

Blood pressure readings taken at home may be a better measure of your current blood pressure than those taken at your doctor’s office. Make sure you get a good quality, well-fitting home device. It should have the proper sized cuff and a digital readout.

Many medical materials are used to treat Hypertension, such as

 

Amlodipine Besilate http://www.ebiochem.com/product/amlodipine-besilate-99-5344

Nifedipine  http://www.ebiochem.com/product/nifedipine-1152

Felodipine   http://www.ebiochem.com/product/felodipine-16381

VALSARTAN   http://www.ebiochem.com/product/valsartan-19653

 

What is Hirudin?

Hirudin is a naturally occurring peptide in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches (such as Hirudo medicinalis) that has a blood anticoagulant property. It including 65 amino acid residues and three disulfide bond and it has great antithrombin activity. This is fundamental for the leeches’ alimentary habit of hematophagy, since it keeps the blood flowing after the initial phlebotomy performed by the worm on the host’s skin. ebiochem.com

Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. ebiochem.com

So far, Hirudin is the most potent natural inhibitor of thrombin. Unlike antithrombin III, hirudin binds to and inhibits only the activity of thrombin, with a specific activity on fibrinogen. Therefore, hirudin can be used in treatments of all kinds of thrombosis diseases.It prevents or dissolves the formation of clots and thrombi (i.e., it has a thrombolytic activity), and has therapeutic value in blood coagulation disorders, in the treatment of skin hematomas and of superficial varicose veins, either as an injectable or a topical application cream. ebiochem.com

 

What is Ursolic acid?

The Ursolic acid combined with sugar into the form of glycoside. They are found in 7 Subfamilies,46 genera and 62 species of plants. Mainly for the oleaceae plant (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.) leaf, cuckoo pharmaceutical plant bearberry Actostaphylos uva – ursi (L.) Spreng, rosaceae plant loquat Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Leaves, scrophulariaceae plant hair Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud.) leaf, labiatae plants selfheal (Prunella vulgaris L.) all grass, Aquifoliaceae Ilex rotunda (Ilex rotunda Thunb.) leaves, etc. ebiochem.com

Initially, ursolic acid was not thought to have medicinal qualities. Despite this, it was still traditionally used in alternative medicine. Its first pharmacological use was to aide in the making of oils and lotions, but not as an active ingredient. Eventually with further research, its anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antiviral qualities were discovered.

Ursolic acid is also sometimes called urson, prunol, or malol. Other acids that have similar chemical compositions — and therefore similar pharmacological and cosmological uses — include betulinic, moronic, and oleanic acid. Each of these also has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, or antiviral properties and are carboxylic acids, which are the most plentiful of the organic acids. ebiochem.com

Indian scholar Saraswat found ursolic acid (5 ~ 20 mg · kg) has protective effect to rat liver caused by CC1. ebiochem.com

Ursolic acid has an exceptionally low toxicity. This dermatological harmlessness makes it extremely valuable, as it can be used in a large number of products. It is proven safe for both external and internal use as well. ebiochem.com

In cosmetics, ursolic acid has a variety of applications. It is used to treat and prevent scalp irritation and to stimulate hair growth. It may also help reduce or stop dandruff. It’s ability to stimulate blood flow is what makes it especially useful in treating scalp problems. ebiochem.com

What Is Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride?

A type of antibiotic, oxytetracycline hydrochloride is used both in humans and in farm animals. It can cure infectious diseases caused by a variety of bacterial species, such as foodborne disease, pneumonias and tick-borne illnesses. The drug works by blocking the production of proteins that the bacteria need as materials to replicate.

Produced in nature by a bacterium called Streptomyces rimosus, oxytetracycline hydrochloride is part of the group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. This group of drugs are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means that they kill a variety of microbes across many species. A typical dose of oxytetracycline hydrochloride contains up to about 125 milligrams of the drug, along with other ingredients such as inert bulking agents.
When microbes infect the body, they tend to replicate themselves, using the nutrients of the host as food and building materials. Proteins are a particular type of biological material that bacteria like to use, both as structural material and in other essential cell processes. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride acts on the individual bacterial cells to prevent them from making the right proteins. This stops the bacteria from reproducing and allows the host body to clear the infection.

A type of antibiotic, oxytetracycline hydrochloride is used both in humans and in farm animals. It can cure infectious diseases caused by a variety of bacterial species, such as foodborne disease, pneumonias and tick-borne illnesses. The drug works by blocking the production of proteins that the bacteria need as materials to replicate.
Produced in nature by a bacterium called Streptomyces rimosus, oxytetracycline hydrochloride is part of the group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. This group of drugs are broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means that they kill a variety of microbes across many species. A typical dose of oxytetracycline hydrochloride contains up to about 125 milligrams of the drug, along with other ingredients such as inert bulking agents.
When microbes infect the body, they tend to replicate themselves, using the nutrients of the host as food and building materials. Proteins are a particular type of biological material that bacteria like to use, both as structural material and in other essential cell processes. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride acts on the individual bacterial cells to prevent them from making the right proteins. This stops the bacteria from reproducing and allows the host body to clear the infection.

The effects of Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring biopolymer whose molecular structure is highly conserved between mammalian species. First described in 1934, it has since been used across a wide variety of medical fields as diverse as neurosurgery and cutaneous wound healing. Presently it has reached prominence in cosmetic practice where it is now the injectable dermal filler of choice for most surgeons. ebiochem.com

Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte). When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of link protein, large highly negatively-charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The molecular weight (size) of hyaluronan in cartilage decreases with age, but the amount increases.ebiochem.com

Hyaluronan is a polymer of disaccharides, themselves composed of D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine, linked via alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds. Hyaluronan can be 25,000 disaccharide repeats in length. Polymers of hyaluronan can range in size from 5,000 to 20,000,000 Da in vivo. The average molecular weight in human synovial fluid is 3−4 million Da, and hyaluronan purified from human umbilical cord is 3,140,000 Da. ebiochem.com

Skin provides a mechanical barrier to the external environment and acts to prevent the ingress of infectious agents. Once injured, the tissues beneath are exposed to infection; therefore, rapid and effective healing is of crucial significance to reconstruct a barrier function. Skin wound healing is a complex process, and includes many interacting processes initiated by haemostasis and the release of platelet-derived factors.The following stages are inflammation, granulation tissue formation, reepithelization and remodeling. HA is likely to play a multifaceted role in mediation of these cellular and matrix events. The proposed roles of HA in this sequence of skin wound healing events are elucidated in details below.ebiochem.com

Sore Throat Natural Remedy

Contrary to what mainstream media tends to teach, experiencing a cold or the flu periodically can actually be helpful to your health. www.ebiochem.com

By and large, the viruses that cause the common cold and flu infect mainly your weakest cells, which you want to get rid of and have replaced by healthy cells. This makes sense, doesn’t it? Cells that are already burdened with excessive waste products and toxins are most likely to allow viruses to infect them. www.ebiochem.com

So in the big scheme of things, a cold or flu can allow your body to purge itself of old and damaged cells that, in the absence of a viral infection, would normally take much longer to identify, destroy, and eliminate. www.ebiochem.com

With all of that said, you should know of a natural remedy for a sore throat that can often precede a cold or flu. Yes, that feeling of having crushed glass floating around in your throat can often be remedied without conventional over-the-counter analgesics. www.ebiochem.com

I’ve written before about gargling with salt water. Sometimes, several quality gargling sessions with salt water is enough to resolve a prickly throat. www.ebiochem.com

But where you need more lysing power, you might try using a mixture of hot red chili powder – often called Cayenne pepper – and orange juice. Koreans call Cayenne pepper go choo kah roo, which are the fine hot chili pepper flecks used to make thousands of varieties of kim chi. Just a simple blend of 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon of hot red chili powder and pulpy orange juice, taken with a straw, can provide almost instant relief from a sore throat. www.ebiochem.com

Be sure not to use more than 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon for about every 8 ounces of orange juice, as Cayenne pepper is a highly concentrated spicy food powder, and when taken in higher amounts, can aggravate parts of your gastrointestinal tract. This warning is especially important to heed where there is a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, or even ulcerations in the duodenum. www.ebiochem.com

Cayenne pepper plus pulpy orange juice is best taken down with a straw, as there is no need to expose the mucous lining of your mouth to the active ingredients of hot red chilis. Just take this mixture straight to your throat with a straw, slow and steady. Repeat every two to three hours until your throat is free of discomfort. www.ebiochem.com

The idea is to deliver the active ingredients of red hot chili powder to the viruses that have lodged themselves within the tonsils and adenoids that line the back of your throat region. Viruses that cause colds and flus typically get caught by your tonsils and adenoids before they spread through your body. In this way, your tonsils and adenoids are important parts of your immune system because they are located near the entrance of your breathing passages, where they serve as a first line of defence against undesirable airborne microorganisms and substances. www.ebiochem.com

This, by the way, is why it is best not to remove tonsils and adenoids from your throat region. Chronic swelling of tonsils and adenoids is best addressed by reducing sugar intake, adopting a minimally processed diet that is rich in fresh plant foods, and supporting immune system health by getting plenty of rest, exercise, and exposure to sunlight and fresh air. www.ebiochem.com

Depending on how quickly you turn to this natural home remedy for a sore throat, you may even ward off a full blown cold or flu. But even if you do continue on with a cold or flu, you can at least go through this natural cleansing process without an agonizingly sore throat. Don’t forget to get lots of rest, drink plenty of healthy fluids, ensure optimal vitamin D status, and take comfort in knowing that countless viruses are at work on your behalf to dispose of your weakest cells. And don’t forget to blow your nose as often as it runs; help your body get rid of what it wants to get rid of. www.ebiochem.com

I’ve hesitated in the past to share this tip of using red hot chili powder with orange juice for a sore throat because I was afraid that some might overdo this and end up suffering elsewhere. When followed properly, this remedy often astonishes with its effectiveness, so please be careful and conservative in your use of red hot chili powder. www.ebiochem.com

For young children or those who have a history of gastrointestinal trouble when taking spicy foods, you can use even less red hot chili powder, and even consider ingesting a banana, potato, or even some rice before taking the Cayenne-orange juice blend, as having some healthy mass in the stomach right before taking the drink can help protect the lining of the GI tract against the active ingredients of red hot chilis. www.ebiochem.com

Please consider sharing this information with family and friends. And please don’t forget to emphasize the warning on being conservative in dose. It’s such a highly effective home remedy without the cost or negative effects of conventional pharmaceutical solutions. www.ebiochem.com

Do You Know They Are Used For Rhinitis?

Rhinitis refers to inflammation of the nasal passages. This inflammation can cause a variety of annoying symptoms, including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, runny nose, and post-nasal drip (the sensation that mucus is draining from the sinuses down the back of the throat). www.ebiochem.com

Brief episodes of rhinitis are usually caused by respiratory tract infections with viruses (eg, the common cold). Chronic rhinitis is usually caused by allergies, but it can also occur from overuse of certain drugs, some medical conditions, and other unidentifiable factors. www.ebiochem.com

Allergic rhinitis is caused by a nasal reaction to small airborne particles called allergens (substances that provoke an allergic reaction). In some people, these particles also cause reactions in the lungs (asthma) and eyes (allergic conjunctivitis).

The allergic reaction is characterized by activation of two types of inflammatory cells, called mast cells and basophils. These cells produce inflammatory substances, such as histamine, which cause fluid to build up in the nasal tissues (congestion), itching, sneezing, and runny nose. Over several hours, these substances activate other inflammatory cells that can cause persistent symptoms. www.ebiochem.com

Chlorpheniramine

Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed in the form of chlorpheniramine maleate (Chlorphen-12[1]), is a first-generation alkylamine antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. Chlorpheniramine relieves red, itchy, watery eyes; sneezing; itchy nose or throat; and runny nose caused by allergies, hay fever, and the common cold. Chlorpheniramine helps control the symptoms of cold or allergies but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. www.ebiochem.com

Brompheniramine

Brompheniramine (Bromfed, Dimetapp, Bromfenex, Dimetane, BPN, Lodrane), commonly marketed as its salt brompheniramine maleate, is an antihistamine drug of the propylamine (alkylamine) class. It is readily available over the counter and is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of the common cold and allergic rhinitis, such as runny nose, itchy eyes, watery eyes, and sneezing. It is a first-generation antihistamine. www.ebiochem.com

Carbinoxamine

Carbinoxamine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Do not give this medication to a child younger than 2 years old. www.ebiochem.com

 

 

 

Why many people take Glucosamine?

Glucosamine is a natural compound that is found in healthy cartilage. In the past, some researchers thought glucosamine may actually slow progression of the disease, unlike other current medical treatments for OA. Many people take either acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve), for OA pain. In addition, some of these drugs can cause stomach upset, cramps, constipation, diarrhea, and in some cases, stomach ulcers and infertility. from:ebiochem.com

Glucosamine is often combined with chondroitin sulfate, a molecule naturally present in cartilage. Chondroitin gives cartilage elasticity and is believed to prevent the destruction of cartilage by enzymes. Glucosamine is sometimes combined with methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM, in nutritional supplements. Because glucosamine can help the everyday rebuilding of the connective tissues around your joints,  including your tendons, ligaments and cartilage. These tissues are continuously being formed and reformed during normal everyday activity. from:ebiochem.com

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, dietary supplements should be taken only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider. Studies suggest that glucosamine is safe, and causes only minor side effects, such as stomach upset, heartburn, indigestion, gas, bloating, nauseau, and diarrhea. If these occur, try taking glucosamine with food. People with peptic ulcers should take glucosamine sulfate with food. from:ebiochem.com

Safety and tolerability of indacaterol in asthma: A randomized, placebo-controlled 28-day study

Indacaterol is a novel once-a-day and fast-acting β2-agonist in development for the treatment (Pulmonology Research Institute) of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Preclinical data suggest that, for a given degree of bronchodilator activity, indacaterol has a greater cardiovascular safety margin than formoterol or salmeterol.5 In-vivo guinea pig studies with indacaterol have demonstrated a sustained bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effect, and a rapid onset of action (comparable to salbutamol and formoterol). ebiochem.com

Inhaled β2-agonists are the most effective bronchodilators for the prevention and relief of bronchoconstriction associated with asthma, and therefore have an important role in managing asthma symptoms.  Long-acting β2-agonists, such as salmeterol and formoterol, have 12-h durations of action, and their recommended use is in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma.

The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and tolerability of indacaterol 200, 400 and 600 μg compared with placebo, dosed once daily over 28 days in patients with asthma. The 200 μg dose was selected as a potentially therapeutic dose based on the results of a previous Phase I study.6 Particular attention was paid to the predictable pharmacological effects of a β2-agonist on serum potassium, blood glucose, heart rate, blood pressure, QTc, and occurrence of tremor, headache and nervousness.ebiochem.com

Patients were randomized using a validated automated system in the ratio 1:1:1:1 to receive indacaterol 200, 400 or 600 μg or placebo once daily by inhalation from hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). To ensure blinding, indacaterol and placebo devices were identical in appearance. ebiochem.com

Inhaled salbutamol was permitted as rescue medication. Patients who had been using long-acting β2-agonists prior to the study were instructed to use salbutamol on a regular basis for the duration of the run-in phase and as needed during the randomized treatment phase. The steroid component of combination (inhaled corticosteroid and β2-agonist) therapy was replaced with the equivalent monotherapy inhaled corticosteroid. Those patients on “monotherapy” inhaled corticosteroid continued on the pre-study steroid regimen. Patients could use nasal corticosteroids, antihistamines, cromones, ketotifen and leukotriene antagonists, provided that treatment had been stable for 1 month prior to the study. Desensitization therapy for rhinitis was permitted, provided that treatment had been stable for the previous 3 months. ebiochem.com

The safety and tolerability of indacaterol, a novel once-daily β2-agonist bronchodilator with a fast onset of action, were assessed in 156 asthma patients in a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received indacaterol 200, 400 or 600 μg or placebo once daily for 28 days. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory assessments, vital signs, electrocardiograms, spirometry and physical examinations were monitored. Indacaterol pharmacokinetics were assessed.

There was no evidence of dose-related increases in AE incidence or clinically significant hypokalaemia or hyperglycaemia in indacaterol-treated patients. Mean pulse rate changes were minor in any group, with maximum 1-h post-dose changes from baseline of −3.7, −3.3 and −2.2 bpm for indacaterol 200, 400 and 600 μg, respectively, and −2.9 bpm for placebo. Mean QTc interval was similar between groups; change from baseline >60 ms occurred in only two patients. Mean FEV1 increased after the first indacaterol dose; baseline-adjusted pre-dose (trough) values remained ⩾166 mL higher than placebo at all subsequent visits, supporting a 24-h bronchodilator effect. Pre-dose (but not post-dose) serum indacaterol concentrations indicated a slight trend for accumulation. ebiochem.com

Once-daily indacaterol 200–600 μg has a favourable therapeutic index. It is well tolerated, and is not associated with any adverse cardiac or metabolic effects, while providing effective 24-h bronchodilation. ebiochem.com

 

 

Is Tretinoin (Retin A) suitable for you?

Tretinoin is the acid form of vitamin A and is also known as all-trans retinoic acid. It is a drug commonly used to treat acne vulgaris and keratosis pilaris. It can also help slow the signs of aging on skin as well as masking stretch marks.It is marketed in the United States under the brand names Retin-A, Avita and Atralin. It is a very effective way  to clear up zits and pimples, but it is important to follow doctor’s instructions when using it. ebiochem.com

After the repeated application of Tretinoin, the outermost skin layer (stratum corneum) thins. At the same time, the cells in the epidermis level are stimulated to produce a thickened epidermis layer. Through this stimulation, collagen production and cellular growth in the dermis layer also increase. Typically, benefits are fully evident after seven weeks of proper application. Treatment must be maintained in order to continue to reap the benefits of Retin-A.ebiochem.com

When a dermatologist prescribes tretinoin, it is important for the patient to understand its use. Patients must introduce their skin to  the drug gradually. Patients should understand that changing the application dosage to more frequent applications can result in damage to the skin.ebiochem.com