An Overview of Resveratrol’s Medicinal Value

1)The effect of resveratrol to the proliferation of B16 melanocyte,the activity of cellular tyrosinase and the synthesis of melanin were investigated. The results showed that resveratrol can inhibit the cellular proliferation,reduce the activity of cellular tyrosinase,and obviously decreased the content of cellular melanin compared with arbutin and ethyl vitamin C,0.5 μg/mL resveratrol solution has the same effect with 50 μg/mL arbutin and ethyl Vc.

2)Resveratrol plays a role in protecting liver from damage by alcohol. Alcohol can cause liver damage in the form of steatosis or fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. In general, the amount and duration of alcohol abuse correlate with the presence and severity of liver damage, at least as regards the initial stage of fatty liver. After too much alcohol, Glutathione level will be low but after added resveratrol, this level returned soon.

3) Resveratrol is believed to stimulate the SiRT1 gene; this gene is the one that kicks in when a person begins to lose weight.This same phenomenon is believed to help slow the aging process. Taking resveratrol, then, can be a way to achieve anti-aging benefits without having to go on an extreme weight reduction diet. It is not surprising that so many people are making sure to include it in their regular, balanced diet.

4) Resveratrol, a nonflavonoid polyphenol naturally found in red wine and grapes, has been known to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. From this study, rat primary midbrain neuron-glia cultures were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection. The results clearly demonstrated that resveratrol protected DA neurons against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in concentration- and time-dependent manners through the inhibition of microglial activation and the subsequent reduction of proinflammatory factor release. Mechanistically, resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection was attributed to the inhibition of NADPH oxidase. First, resveratrol reduced NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Second, LPS-induced translocation of NADPH oxidase cytosolic subunit p47 to the cell membrane was significantly attenuated by resveratrol. Third and most importantly, resveratrol failed to exhibit neuroprotection in cultures from NADPH oxidase-deficient mice. Furthermore, this neuroprotection was also related to an attenuation of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways in microglia. These findings suggest that resveratrol exerts neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and NADPH oxidase may be a major player in resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection.

5) Research suggests that resveratrol can help control the symptoms of asthma and improve the effectiveness of corticosteroid drug treatment. Resveratrol has been shown to reduce asthmatic symptoms by regulating immune system responses and reducing inflammation.41 In addition, recent research on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suggests that resveratrol could also help those asthmatics who do not respond well to corticosteroids because they are insensitive or resistant to them. Studies have shown that some 50% of people with asthma have some resistance to steroidal treatment.

Pycnogenol benifits to Asthma

A new clinical study in Intalian Pescara University shows that Pycnogenol extracted from Coast Pine Bark have possitive influence on allergic asthma and it especially reduced night cough by 50%.

In this study, 76 asthma patients ranging from 25 to 45 years old were recruited and all of them are varying degrees allergic to mote. They were split into two groups , one group had ICS(Inhaled Cortex Sterol) treatment with pycnogenol intake, the other kept on ICS treatment without any supplyment.

The result indicates that compared with only ICS treatment group, the asthma symptoms in pycnogenol intake group reduced by 55% and also frequency of night cough reduced by more than half. Meanwhile pycnogenol intake also reduced Asthma degree by one degree. This Asthma degree means determination index of the patients with respiratory distress

Safety and tolerability of indacaterol in asthma: A randomized, placebo-controlled 28-day study

Indacaterol is a novel once-a-day and fast-acting β2-agonist in development for the treatment (Pulmonology Research Institute) of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Preclinical data suggest that, for a given degree of bronchodilator activity, indacaterol has a greater cardiovascular safety margin than formoterol or salmeterol.5 In-vivo guinea pig studies with indacaterol have demonstrated a sustained bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effect, and a rapid onset of action (comparable to salbutamol and formoterol).

Inhaled β2-agonists are the most effective bronchodilators for the prevention and relief of bronchoconstriction associated with asthma, and therefore have an important role in managing asthma symptoms.  Long-acting β2-agonists, such as salmeterol and formoterol, have 12-h durations of action, and their recommended use is in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma.

The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and tolerability of indacaterol 200, 400 and 600 μg compared with placebo, dosed once daily over 28 days in patients with asthma. The 200 μg dose was selected as a potentially therapeutic dose based on the results of a previous Phase I study.6 Particular attention was paid to the predictable pharmacological effects of a β2-agonist on serum potassium, blood glucose, heart rate, blood pressure, QTc, and occurrence of tremor, headache and

Patients were randomized using a validated automated system in the ratio 1:1:1:1 to receive indacaterol 200, 400 or 600 μg or placebo once daily by inhalation from hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). To ensure blinding, indacaterol and placebo devices were identical in appearance.

Inhaled salbutamol was permitted as rescue medication. Patients who had been using long-acting β2-agonists prior to the study were instructed to use salbutamol on a regular basis for the duration of the run-in phase and as needed during the randomized treatment phase. The steroid component of combination (inhaled corticosteroid and β2-agonist) therapy was replaced with the equivalent monotherapy inhaled corticosteroid. Those patients on “monotherapy” inhaled corticosteroid continued on the pre-study steroid regimen. Patients could use nasal corticosteroids, antihistamines, cromones, ketotifen and leukotriene antagonists, provided that treatment had been stable for 1 month prior to the study. Desensitization therapy for rhinitis was permitted, provided that treatment had been stable for the previous 3 months.

The safety and tolerability of indacaterol, a novel once-daily β2-agonist bronchodilator with a fast onset of action, were assessed in 156 asthma patients in a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received indacaterol 200, 400 or 600 μg or placebo once daily for 28 days. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory assessments, vital signs, electrocardiograms, spirometry and physical examinations were monitored. Indacaterol pharmacokinetics were assessed.

There was no evidence of dose-related increases in AE incidence or clinically significant hypokalaemia or hyperglycaemia in indacaterol-treated patients. Mean pulse rate changes were minor in any group, with maximum 1-h post-dose changes from baseline of −3.7, −3.3 and −2.2 bpm for indacaterol 200, 400 and 600 μg, respectively, and −2.9 bpm for placebo. Mean QTc interval was similar between groups; change from baseline >60 ms occurred in only two patients. Mean FEV1 increased after the first indacaterol dose; baseline-adjusted pre-dose (trough) values remained ⩾166 mL higher than placebo at all subsequent visits, supporting a 24-h bronchodilator effect. Pre-dose (but not post-dose) serum indacaterol concentrations indicated a slight trend for accumulation.

Once-daily indacaterol 200–600 μg has a favourable therapeutic index. It is well tolerated, and is not associated with any adverse cardiac or metabolic effects, while providing effective 24-h bronchodilation.



Some Asthma Medications and Their Effects(2)

Generic name: Salbutamol

Salbutamol (sal-bue-tar-moll) is a medicine which is used in asthma and bronchospasm. It helps to keep the airways open, making it easier to breathe. Inhaled preparations of Salbutamol are fast acting. They can make your breathing easier and relieve bronchospasm within minutes. When you are having an asthma attack you should use a fast acting preparation of Salbutamol as directed by your prescriber. If your normal inhaled dose of Salbutamol does not give you the same amount of relief then you should contact your prescriber for more advice. They may want you to have additional treatment.

Generic name: Salmeterol

This is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). It is currently available as a dry powder inhaler that releases a powdered form of the drug. Before 2008, it was also available as a metered-dose inhaler (MDI).

Generic name: Prednisone, Prednisolone

Prednisone is an oral steroid medication. If you have serious worsening of asthma symptoms (an asthma attack), your doctor may prescribe a brief course of oral steroids such as prednisone. Sometimes systemic steroids like prednisone are taken in high doses for a few days. This is called a steroid burst. They may also be given in a low dose daily or every other day for long-term asthma control.

Generic name: Theophylline

Theophylline functions mainly as a muscle relaxant to open up narrowed airways, and it may have mild anti-inflammatory qualities as well, although it’s not known exactly how it works. For persistent asthma, theophylline is not considered the preferred first treatment because it has not been shown to be as effective as inhaled corticosteroids. However, in some cases it may be prescribed as an additional medication if sufficient control is not achieved with steroids alone. Although theophylline comes in both short-acting and slow-release formulations, it is most frequently administered in its slow-release form once or twice a day.

Generic name: Zafirlukast

Zafirlukast is an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist used for treating asthma. Leukotrienes are a group of chemicals manufactured in the body from arachidonic acid. Release of leukotrienes within the body, for example, by allergic reactions, promotes inflammation in many diseases such as asthma, a disease in which inflammation occurs in the lungs. Zafirlukast blocks the binding of leukotriene types D4 (LTD4), and E4 (LTE4) and the promotion of inflammation. It also is effective in preventing exercise-induced asthma and in relieving the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Zafirlukast reduces the risk of an asthma exacerbation, suggesting that the contribution of leukotrienes to asthma symptoms and exacerbations is not adequately controlled by high-dose inhaled corticosteroids.

Some Asthma Medications and Their effects (1)

Generic name: Budesonide

Budesonide is a man-made glucocorticoid steroid related to the naturally-occurring hormone, cortisol or hydrocortisone which is produced in the adrenal glands. It is used for treating asthma by inhalation. Glucocorticoid steroids such as cortisol or budesonide have potent anti-inflammatory actions that reduces inflammation and hyper-reactivity (spasm) of the airways caused by asthma. When used as an inhaler, the budesonide goes directly to the inner lining of the inflamed airways to exert its effects.

Generic name: Beclomethasone

Beclomethasone is a synthetic steroid of the glucocorticoid family. The naturally-occurring glucocorticoid (cortisol or hydrocortisone) is produced in the adrenal glands. eclomethasone is used for the control of bronchial asthma in persons requiring continuous treatment. Such patients may include those with frequent asthmatic episodes that require medications to dilate the airways in the lung or those with asthmatic episodes at night.

Generic name: Flunisolide

It is an intranasal and oral inhalation adrenal corticosteroid. It is prescribed in the treatment of seasonal or continuing allergic rhinitis that involves inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and for the treatment of asthma.

contraindications It should not be given to patients with allergy to this drug or any of its components or to patients with status asthmaticus or untreated bacterial, viral, or fungal infections of the respiratory tract or nasal mucosa.

Generic name: Montelukast

Montelukast is an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist that is used for the treatment of asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Leukotrienes are a group of naturally occurring chemicals in the body that promote inflammation in asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis and in other diseases in which inflammation is important (such as allergy). They are formed by cells, released, and then bound to other cells that cause inflammation. It is the binding to other cells that stimulates the cells to cause inflammation. Montelukast works in a manner similar to zafirlukast (Accolate), blocking the binding of some leukotrienes to the cells that cause inflammation. Unlike zafirlukast, montelukast does not inhibit CYP2C9 or CYP3A4, two enzymes in the liver that are important in breaking down and eliminating many drugs. Therefore, unlike zafirlukast, montelukast is not expected to affect the elimination of other drugs. The safety and effectiveness of montelukast has been demonstrated in children as young as 6 months of age. It was approved by the FDA in 1998.